Matching Items (5)

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Representing Certain Continued Fraction AF Algebras as C*-algebras of Categories of Paths and non-AF Groupoids

Description

C*-algebras of categories of paths were introduced by Spielberg in 2014 and generalize C*-algebras of higher rank graphs. An approximately finite dimensional (AF) C*-algebra is one which is isomorphic to

C*-algebras of categories of paths were introduced by Spielberg in 2014 and generalize C*-algebras of higher rank graphs. An approximately finite dimensional (AF) C*-algebra is one which is isomorphic to an inductive limit of finite dimensional C*-algebras. In 2012, D.G. Evans and A. Sims proposed an analogue of a cycle for higher rank graphs and show that the lack of such an object is necessary for the associated C*-algebra to be AF. Here, I give a class of examples of categories of paths whose associated C*-algebras are Morita equivalent to a large number of periodic continued fraction AF algebras, first described by Effros and Shen in 1980. I then provide two examples which show that the analogue of cycles proposed by Evans and Sims is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the C*-algebra of a category of paths to be AF.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Estimating Low Generalized Coloring Numbers of Planar Graphs

Description

The chromatic number $\chi(G)$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is the minimum

number of colors needed to color $V(G)$ such that no adjacent vertices

receive the same color. The coloring number $\col(G)$ of

The chromatic number $\chi(G)$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$ is the minimum

number of colors needed to color $V(G)$ such that no adjacent vertices

receive the same color. The coloring number $\col(G)$ of a graph

$G$ is the minimum number $k$ such that there exists a linear ordering

of $V(G)$ for which each vertex has at most $k-1$ backward neighbors.

It is well known that the coloring number is an upper bound for the

chromatic number. The weak $r$-coloring number $\wcol_{r}(G)$ is

a generalization of the coloring number, and it was first introduced

by Kierstead and Yang \cite{77}. The weak $r$-coloring number $\wcol_{r}(G)$

is the minimum integer $k$ such that for some linear ordering $L$

of $V(G)$ each vertex $v$ can reach at most $k-1$ other smaller

vertices $u$ (with respect to $L$) with a path of length at most

$r$ and $u$ is the smallest vertex in the path. This dissertation proves that $\wcol_{2}(G)\le23$ for every planar graph $G$.

The exact distance-$3$ graph $G^{[\natural3]}$ of a graph $G=(V,E)$

is a graph with $V$ as its set of vertices, and $xy\in E(G^{[\natural3]})$

if and only if the distance between $x$ and $y$ in $G$ is $3$.

This dissertation improves the best known upper bound of the

chromatic number of the exact distance-$3$ graphs $G^{[\natural3]}$

of planar graphs $G$, which is $105$, to $95$. It also improves

the best known lower bound, which is $7$, to $9$.

A class of graphs is nowhere dense if for every $r\ge 1$ there exists $t\ge 1$ such that no graph in the class contains a topological minor of the complete graph $K_t$ where every edge is subdivided at most $r$ times. This dissertation gives a new characterization of nowhere dense classes using generalized notions of the domination number.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Functorial results for C*-algebras of higher-rank graphs

Description

Higher-rank graphs, or k-graphs, are higher-dimensional analogues of directed graphs, and as with ordinary directed graphs, there are various C*-algebraic objects that can be associated with them. This thesis adopts

Higher-rank graphs, or k-graphs, are higher-dimensional analogues of directed graphs, and as with ordinary directed graphs, there are various C*-algebraic objects that can be associated with them. This thesis adopts a functorial approach to study the relationship between k-graphs and their associated C*-algebras. In particular, two functors are given between appropriate categories of higher-rank graphs and the category of C*-algebras, one for Toeplitz algebras and one for Cuntz-Krieger algebras. Additionally, the Cayley graphs of finitely generated groups are used to define a class of k-graphs, and a functor is then given from a category of finitely generated groups to the category of C*-algebras. Finally, functoriality is investigated for product systems of C*-correspondences associated to k-graphs. Additional results concerning the structural consequences of functoriality, properties of the functors, and combinatorial aspects of k-graphs are also included throughout.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Some Turán-type problems in extremal graph theory

Description

Since the seminal work of Tur ́an, the forbidden subgraph problem has been among the central questions in extremal graph theory. Let ex(n;F) be the smallest number m such that

Since the seminal work of Tur ́an, the forbidden subgraph problem has been among the central questions in extremal graph theory. Let ex(n;F) be the smallest number m such that any graph on n vertices with m edges contains F as a subgraph. Then the forbidden subgraph problem asks to find ex(n; F ) for various graphs F . The question can be further generalized by asking for the extreme values of other graph parameters like minimum degree, maximum degree, or connectivity. We call this type of question a Tura ́n-type problem. In this thesis, we will study Tura ́n-type problems and their variants for graphs and hypergraphs.

Chapter 2 contains a Tura ́n-type problem for cycles in dense graphs. The main result in this chapter gives a tight bound for the minimum degree of a graph which guarantees existence of disjoint cycles in the case of dense graphs. This, in particular, answers in the affirmative a question of Faudree, Gould, Jacobson and Magnant in the case of dense graphs.

In Chapter 3, similar problems for trees are investigated. Recently, Faudree, Gould, Jacobson and West studied the minimum degree conditions for the existence of certain spanning caterpillars. They proved certain bounds that guarantee existence of spanning caterpillars. The main result in Chapter 3 significantly improves their result and answers one of their questions by proving a tight minimum degree bound for the existence of such structures.

Chapter 4 includes another Tur ́an-type problem for loose paths of length three in a 3-graph. As a corollary, an upper bound for the multi-color Ramsey number for the loose path of length three in a 3-graph is achieved.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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On minimal levels of Iwasawa towers

Description

In 1959, Iwasawa proved that the size of the $p$-part of the class groups of a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension grows as a power of $p$ with exponent ${\mu}p^m+{\lambda}\,m+\nu$ for $m$ sufficiently large.

In 1959, Iwasawa proved that the size of the $p$-part of the class groups of a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension grows as a power of $p$ with exponent ${\mu}p^m+{\lambda}\,m+\nu$ for $m$ sufficiently large. Broadly, I construct conditions to verify if a given $m$ is indeed sufficiently large. More precisely, let $CG_m^i$ (class group) be the $\epsilon_i$-eigenspace component of the $p$-Sylow subgroup of the class group of the field at the $m$-th level in a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension; and let $IACG^i_m$ (Iwasawa analytic class group) be ${\mathbb{Z}_p[[T]]/((1+T)^{p^m}-1,f(T,\omega^{1-i}))}$, where $f$ is the associated Iwasawa power series. It is expected that $CG_m^i$ and $IACG^i_m$ be isomorphic, providing us with a powerful connection between algebraic and analytic techniques; however, as of yet, this isomorphism is unestablished in general. I consider the existence and the properties of an exact sequence $$0\longrightarrow\ker{\longrightarrow}CG_m^i{\longrightarrow}IACG_m^i{\longrightarrow}\textrm{coker}\longrightarrow0.$$ In the case of a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension where the Main Conjecture is established, there exists a pseudo-isomorphism between the respective inverse limits of $CG_m^i$ and $IACG_m^i$. I consider conditions for when such a pseudo-isomorphism immediately gives the existence of the desired exact sequence, and I also consider work-around methods that preserve cardinality for otherwise. However, I primarily focus on constructing conditions to verify if a given $m$ is sufficiently large that the kernel and cokernel of the above exact sequence have become well-behaved, providing similarity of growth both in the size and in the structure of $CG_m^i$ and $IACG_m^i$; as well as conditions to determine if any such $m$ exists. The primary motivating idea is that if $IACG_m^i$ is relatively easy to work with, and if the relationship between $CG_m^i$ and $IACG_m^i$ is understood; then $CG_m^i$ becomes easier to work with. Moreover, while the motivating framework is stated concretely in terms of the cyclotomic $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension of $p$-power roots of unity, all results are generally applicable to arbitrary $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extensions as they are developed in terms of Iwasawa-Theory-inspired, yet abstracted, algebraic results on maps between inverse limits.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013