Matching Items (7)

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Low-frequency accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducer in galvanic cell

Description

In this thesis, an approach to develop low-frequency accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) in an electrochemical cell is presented. Molecular electronic transducers are a class of inertial sensors

In this thesis, an approach to develop low-frequency accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) in an electrochemical cell is presented. Molecular electronic transducers are a class of inertial sensors which are based on an electrochemical mechanism. Motion sensors based on MET technology consist of an electrochemical cell that can be used to detect the movement of liquid electrolyte between electrodes by converting it to an output current. Seismometers based on MET technology are attractive for planetary applications due to their high sensitivity, low noise, small size and independence on the direction of sensitivity axis. In addition, the fact that MET based sensors have a liquid inertial mass with no moving parts makes them rugged and shock tolerant (basic survivability has been demonstrated to >20 kG).

A Zn-Cu electrochemical cell (Galvanic cell) was applied in the low-frequency accelerometer. Experimental results show that external vibrations (range from 18 to 70 Hz) were successfully detected by this accelerometer as reactions Zn→〖Zn〗^(2+)+2e^- occurs around the anode and 〖Cu〗^(2+)+2e^-→Cu around the cathode. Accordingly, the sensitivity of this MET device design is to achieve 10.4 V/G at 18 Hz. And the sources of noise have been analyzed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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A double-sided planar transmission medium design for ultra-low loss planar orthomode transducers

Description

Microwave circuits are an essential part of technology in the modern day. Everything from cell phone communications, television and radio reception, medical imaging, and radar surveillance depend on microwave circuitry.

Microwave circuits are an essential part of technology in the modern day. Everything from cell phone communications, television and radio reception, medical imaging, and radar surveillance depend on microwave circuitry. Constant efforts are being made to introduce new methods of implementing more efficient microwave circuitry while maintaining well known fabrication methods. These improvements typically focus on lower loss, smaller size, and higher operating frequencies [1-6]. This thesis will focus on the specific application of a planar orthomode transducer (OMT) in Home Direct Broadcast (DBS) Systems used in residential satellite receivers. The need for low-loss circuitry becomes increasingly important in the realm of satellite reception, as the carrier to noise levels at the receiver can be as low as 10dB [7]. Interference and loss of signal integrity can occur very easily if the receiving network is not properly designed.

This thesis will investigate the design of a planar transmission media that produces ultra-low losses when compared to more conventional planar transmission media. This design, which is called Double Sided Suspended Stripline (DSSL), utilizes air as its primary propagation medium. The design will be similar to standard suspended stripline in geometry, but has signal traces on the top and bottom of the substrate. The traces are connected using plated through-hole vias. This geometry is hugely beneficial because it virtually eliminates one of the major loss mechanisms in classical microwave structures: dielectric loss. This thesis will focus mainly on empirically derived equations and performance metrics obtained through rigorous simulation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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A novel ortho-mode transducer for the 750-1150 GHz band

Description

The design, fabrication and testing of a novel full waveguide band ortho-mode transducer (OMT) for operation from 750-1150 GHz is presented in this dissertation. OMT is a device that separates

The design, fabrication and testing of a novel full waveguide band ortho-mode transducer (OMT) for operation from 750-1150 GHz is presented in this dissertation. OMT is a device that separates orthogonal polarizations within the same frequency band. At millimeter and sub millimeter wavelengths, OMTs can achieve precise characterization of the amplitude, spectrum and polarization of electromagnetic radiation by increasing spectral coverage and sensitivity while reducing aperture size, optical spill and instrumental polarization offsets. A fully planar design is implemented with the use of Robinson OMT model along with a planar finline circuit. CST Microwave Studio is used to design and simulate OMT. Existing finline circuits which were fabricated using photolithographic techniques on a thin dielectric substrate were employed. The finline chips are fabricated on a thin (1 µm) SOI substrate with thick (5 µm) gold finline metallization and gold beam leads for chip grounding. The OMT is designed with H plane splits in the through arm and E plane splits in the side arm to comply with the existing machining tools and technique. Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining is used to fabricate the OMT split block. The OMT is tested at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) using Agilent PNA-X VNA and VDI WR1.0 extension heads. In the future, this OMT design could be a part of a fully integrated dual polarization mixer block, with the input horn, OMT and both mixers fabricated in a single flangeless split block. In Radio Astronomy, integrated dual polarization mixers of this type will increase the signal processing speed by 40%. This type of OMT can also be used for terahertz RADAR and communication purposes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Ionic liquid/water/particle systems: fundamentals through experiment, application and simulation

Description

Ionic liquids (ILs), or low-temperature liquid salts, are a class of materials with unique and useful properties. Made up entirely of ions, ILs are remarkably tunable and diverse as cations

Ionic liquids (ILs), or low-temperature liquid salts, are a class of materials with unique and useful properties. Made up entirely of ions, ILs are remarkably tunable and diverse as cations and anions can be mixed and matched to yield desired properties. Because of this, IL/water systems range widely—from homogeneous mixtures to multiphasic systems featuring ionic liquid/liquid interfaces. Even more diversity is added when particles are introduced to these systems, as hard particles or soft-matter microgels interact with both ILs and water in complex ways. This work examines both miscible ionic liquid/water mixture and two-phase, immiscible ionic liquid/water systems. Extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are utilized in conjunction with physical measurements to inform theoretical understanding of the nature of these systems, and this theoretical understanding is related to practical applications—in particular, the development of a low-temperature liquid electrolyte for use in molecular electronic transducer (MET) seismometers, and particle self-assembly and transport at ionic liquid/liquid interfaces such as those in Pickering emulsions.

The homogenous mixture of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide and water is examined extensively through MD as well as physical characterization of properties. Molecular ordering within the liquid mixture is related to macroscopic properties. These mixtures are then used as the basis of an electrolyte with unusual characteristics, specifically a wide liquid temperature range with an extremely low lower bound combined with relatively low viscosity allowing excellent performance in the MET sensor. Electrolyte performance is further improved by the addition of fullerene nanoparticles, which dramatically increase device sensitivity. The reasons behind this effect are explored by testing the effect of graphene surface size and through MD simulations of fullerene and a silica nanoparticle (for contrast) in [BMIM][I]/water mixtures.

Immiscible ionic liquid/water systems are explored through MD studies of particles at IL/water interfaces. By increasing the concentration of hydrophobic nanoparticles at the IL/water interface, one study discovers the formation of a commingled IL/water/particle pseudo-phase, and relates this discovery to previously-observed unique behaviors of these interfaces, particularly spontaneous particle transport across the interface. The other study demonstrates that IL hydrophobicity can influence the deformation of thermo-responsive soft particles at the liquid/liquid interface.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Physicochemical characterization of PZT-based ultrasonic transducer stacks

Description

A piezoelectric transducer, comprised of electroded and active pad PZT layer atop a backing PZT layer and protected with an acoustic matching layer, and operating under a pulse-echo technique for

A piezoelectric transducer, comprised of electroded and active pad PZT layer atop a backing PZT layer and protected with an acoustic matching layer, and operating under a pulse-echo technique for longitudinal ultrasonic imaging, acts as both source and detector.

Ultrasonic transducer stacks (modules), which had failed or passed during pulse-echo sensitivity testing, were received from Consortium X. With limited background information on these stacks, the central theme was to determine the origin(s) of failure via the use of thermal and physicochemical characterization techniques.

The optical and scanning electron microscopy revealed that contact electrode layers are discontinuous in all samples, while delaminations between electrodes and pad layer were observed in failed samples. The X-ray diffraction data on the pad PZT revealed an overall c/a ratio of 1.022 ratio and morphotropic boundary composition, with significant variations of the Zr to Ti ratio within a sample and between samples. Electron probe microanalysis confirmed that the overall Zr to Ti ratio of the pad PZT was 52/48, and higher amounts of excess PbO in failed samples, whereas, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed the presence of Mn, Al, and Sb (dopants) and presence of Cu (sintering aid) in in this hard (pad) PZT. Additionally, three exothermic peaks during thermal analysis was indicative of incomplete calcination of pad PZT. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of parylene at the Ag-pad PZT interface and within the pores of pad PZT (in failed samples subjected to electric fields). This further dilutes the electrical, mechanical, and electromechanical properties of the pad PZT, which in turn detrimentally influences the pulse echo sensitivity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Molecular electronic transducer based seismic motion sensors micro-fabrication, packaging and validation

Description

The instrumentational measurement of seismic motion is important for a wide range of research fields and applications, such as seismology, geology, physics, civil engineering and harsh environment exploration. This report

The instrumentational measurement of seismic motion is important for a wide range of research fields and applications, such as seismology, geology, physics, civil engineering and harsh environment exploration. This report presents series approaches to develop Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) enhanced inertial motion sensors including accelerometers, seismometers and inclinometers based on Molecular Electronic Transducers (MET) techniques.

Seismometers based on MET technology are attractive for planetary applications due to their high sensitivity, low noise floor, small size, absence of fragile mechanical moving parts and independence on the direction of sensitivity axis. By using MEMS techniques, a micro MET seismometer is developed with inter-electrode spacing close to 5 μm. The employment of MEMS improves the sensitivity of fabricated device to above 2500 V/(m/s2) under operating bias of 300 mV and input velocity of 8.4μm/s from 0.08Hz to 80Hz. The lowered hydrodynamic resistance by increasing the number of channels improves the self-noise to -135 dB equivalent to 18nG/√Hz (G=9.8m/s2) around 1.2 Hz.

Inspired by the advantages of combining MET and MEMS technologies on the development of seismometer, a feasibility study of development of a low frequency accelerometer utilizing MET technology with post-CMOS-compatible fabrication processes is performed. In the fabricated accelerometer, the complicated fabrication of mass-spring system in solid-state MEMS accelerometer is replaced with a much simpler post-CMOS-compatible process containing only deposition of a four-electrode MET structure on a planar substrate, and a liquid inertia mass of an electrolyte droplet. With a specific design of 3D printing based package and replace water based iodide solution by room temperature ionic liquid based electrolyte, the sensitivity relative to the ground motion can reach 103.69V/g, with the resolution of 5.25μG/√Hz at 1Hz.

By combining MET techniques and Zn-Cu electrochemical cell (Galvanic cell), this letter demonstrates a passive motion sensor powered by self-electrochemistry energy, named “Battery Accelerometer”. The experimental results indicated the peak sensitivity of battery accelerometer at its resonant frequency 18Hz is 10.4V/G with the resolution of 1.71μG without power consumption.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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A molecular electronic transducer based low-frequency accelerometer with electrolyte droplet sensing body

Description

"Sensor Decade" has been labeled on the first decade of the 21st century. Similar to the revolution of micro-computer in 1980s, sensor R&D; developed rapidly during the past 20 years.

"Sensor Decade" has been labeled on the first decade of the 21st century. Similar to the revolution of micro-computer in 1980s, sensor R&D; developed rapidly during the past 20 years. Hard workings were mainly made to minimize the size of devices with optimal the performance. Efforts to develop the small size devices are mainly concentrated around Micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) technology. MEMS accelerometers are widely published and used in consumer electronics, such as smart phones, gaming consoles, anti-shake camera and vibration detectors. This study represents liquid-state low frequency micro-accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducer (MET), in which inertial mass is not the only but also the conversion of mechanical movement to electric current signal is the main utilization of the ionic liquid. With silicon-based planar micro-fabrication, the device uses a sub-micron liter electrolyte droplet sealed in oil as the sensing body and a MET electrode arrangement which is the anode-cathode-cathode-anode (ACCA) in parallel as the read-out sensing part. In order to sensing the movement of ionic liquid, an imposed electric potential was applied between the anode and the cathode. The electrode reaction, I_3^-+2e^___3I^-, occurs around the cathode which is reverse at the anodes. Obviously, the current magnitude varies with the concentration of ionic liquid, which will be effected by the movement of liquid droplet as the inertial mass. With such structure, the promising performance of the MET device design is to achieve 10.8 V/G (G=9.81 m/s^2) sensitivity at 20 Hz with the bandwidth from 1 Hz to 50 Hz, and a low noise floor of 100 ug/sqrt(Hz) at 20 Hz.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013