Matching Items (3)

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Reward-based sensorimotor decision making

Description

Existing theories suggest that evidence is accumulated before making a decision with competing goals. In motor tasks, reward and motor costs have been shown to influence the decision, but the

Existing theories suggest that evidence is accumulated before making a decision with competing goals. In motor tasks, reward and motor costs have been shown to influence the decision, but the interaction between these two variables has not been studied in depth. A novel reward-based sensorimotor decision-making task was developed to investigate how reward and motor costs interact to influence decisions. In human subjects, two targets of varying size and reward were presented. After a series of three tones, subjects initiated a movement as one of the targets disappeared. Reward was awarded when participants reached through the remaining target within a specific amount of time. Subjects had to initiate a movement before they knew which target remained. Reward was found to be the only factor that influenced the initial reach. When reward was increased, there was a lower probability of intermediate movements. Both target size and reward lowered reaction times individually and jointly. This interaction can be interpreted as the effect of the expected value, which suggests that reward and target size are not evaluated independently during motor planning. Curvature, or the changing of motor plans, was driven primarily by the target size. After an initial decision was made, the motor costs to switch plans and hit the target had the largest impact on the curvature. An interaction between the reward and target size was also found for curvature, suggesting that the expected value of the target influences the changing of motor plans. Reward, target size, and the interaction between the two were all significant factors for different parts of the decision-making process.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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A nonlinear analysis of movement variability: stability in a sit to a stand

Description

The human body is a complex system comprised of many parts that can coordinate in a variety of ways to produce controlled action. This creates a challenge for researchers and

The human body is a complex system comprised of many parts that can coordinate in a variety of ways to produce controlled action. This creates a challenge for researchers and clinicians in the treatment of variability in motor control. The current study aims at testing the utility of a nonlinear analysis measure – the Largest Lyapunov exponent (1) – in a whole body movement. Experiment 1 examined this measure, in comparison to traditional linear measure (standard deviation), by having participants perform a sit-to-stand (STS) task on platforms that were either stable or unstable. Results supported the notion that the Lyapunov measure characterized controlled/stable movement across the body more accurately than the traditional standard deviation (SD) measure. Experiment 2 tested this analysis further by presenting participants with an auditory perturbation during performance of the same STS task. Results showed that both the Lyapunov and SD measures failed to detect the perturbation. However, the auditory perturbation may not have been an appropriate perturbation. Limitations of Experiment 2 are discussed, as well as directions for future study.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Asymmetries in interpersonal coordination: recruiting degrees-of-freedom stabilizes coordination

Description

The current paper presents two studies that examine how asymmetries during interpersonal coordination are compensated for. It was predicted that destabilizing effects of asymmetries are stabilized through the recruitment and

The current paper presents two studies that examine how asymmetries during interpersonal coordination are compensated for. It was predicted that destabilizing effects of asymmetries are stabilized through the recruitment and suppression of motor degrees-of-freedom (df). Experiment 1 examined this effect by having participants coordinate line movements of different orientations. Greater differences in asymmetries between participants yielded greater spatial deviation, resulting in the recruitment of df. Experiment 2 examined whether coordination of movements asymmetrical in shape (circle and line) yield simultaneous recruitment and suppression of df. This experiment also tested whether the initial stability of the performed movement alters the amount of change in df. Results showed that changes in df were exhibited as circles decreasing in circularity and lines increasing in circularity. Further, more changes in df were found circular (suppression) compared to line (recruitment) movements.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013