Analysis, design and measurements of flat and curved circularly symmetric high impedance surfaces for curvilinear antenna applications
In this dissertation a new wideband circular HIS is proposed. The circular periodicity made it possible to illuminate the surface with a cylindrical TEMz wave and; a novel technique is utilized to make it wideband. Two models are developed to analyze the
reflection characteristics of the proposed HIS.
The circularly symmetric high impedance surface is used as a ground plane for the design of a low-profile loop and spiral radiating elements. It is shown that a HIS with circular periodicity provides a wider operational bandwidth for curvilinear radiating elements such, such as loops and spirals, compared to canonical rectangular HISs.
It is also observed that, with the aid of a circular HIS ground plane the gain of a loop and a spiral increases compared to when a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) or rectangular HIS is used as a ground plane. The circular HIS was fabricated and the loop and spiral elements were placed individually in close proximity to it.
Also, due to the growing demand for low-radar signature (RCS) antennas for advanced airborne vehicles, curved and flexible HIS ground planes, which meet both the aerodynamic and low RCS requirements, have recently become popular candidates within the antenna and microwave technology. This encouraged us, to propose a spherical HIS where a 2-D curvature is introduced to the previously designed flat HIS.
The major problem associated with spherical HIS is the impact of the curvature on its reflection properties. After characterization of the flat circular HIS, which is addressed in the first part of this dissertation, a spherical curvature is introduced to the flat circular HIS and its impact on the reflection properties was examined when it was illuminated with the same cylindrical TEMz wave. The same technique, as for the flat HIS ground plane, is utilized to make the spherical HIS wideband. A loop and spiral element were placed in the vicinity of the curved HIS and their performanceswere investigated. The HISs were also fabricated and measurements were conducted to verify the simulations. An excellent agreement was observed.