Matching Items (4)

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Next Generation of Magneto-Dielectric Antennas and Optimum Flux Channels

Description

There is an ever-growing need for broadband conformal antennas to not only reduce the number of antennas utilized to cover a broad range of frequencies (VHF-UHF) but also to reduce

There is an ever-growing need for broadband conformal antennas to not only reduce the number of antennas utilized to cover a broad range of frequencies (VHF-UHF) but also to reduce visual and RF signatures associated with communication systems. In many applications antennas needs to be very close to low-impedance mediums or embedded inside low-impedance mediums. However, for conventional metal and dielectric antennas to operate efficiently in such environments either a very narrow bandwidth must be tolerated, or enough loss added to expand the bandwidth, or they must be placed one quarter of a wavelength above the conducting surface. The latter is not always possible since in the HF through low UHF bands, critical to Military and Security functions, this quarter-wavelength requirement would result in impractically large antennas.

Despite an error based on a false assumption in the 1950’s, which had severely underestimated the efficiency of magneto-dielectric antennas, recently demonstrated magnetic-antennas have been shown to exhibit extraordinary efficiency in conformal applications. Whereas conventional metal-and-dielectric antennas carrying radiating electric currents suffer a significant disadvantage when placed conformal to the conducting surface of a platform, because they induce opposing image currents in the surface, magnetic-antennas carrying magnetic radiating currents have no such limitation. Their magnetic currents produce co-linear image currents in electrically conducting surfaces.

However, the permeable antennas built to date have not yet attained the wide bandwidth expected because the magnetic-flux-channels carrying the wave have not been designed to guide the wave near the speed of light at all frequencies. Instead, they tend to lose the wave by a leaky fast-wave mechanism at low frequencies or they over-bind a slow-wave at high frequencies. In this dissertation, we have studied magnetic antennas in detail and presented the design approach and apparatus required to implement a flux-channel carrying the magnetic current wave near the speed of light over a very broad frequency range which also makes the design of a frequency independent antenna (spiral) possible. We will learn how to construct extremely thin conformal antennas, frequency-independent permeable antennas, and even micron-sized antennas that can be embedded inside the brain without damaging the tissue.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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High-Directive Metasurface Printed Antennas for Low-Profile Applications

Description

Since the advent of High Impedance Surfaces (HISs) and metasurfaces, researchers

have proposed many low profile antenna configurations. HISs possess in-phase reflection, which reinforces the radiation, and enhances the directivity and

Since the advent of High Impedance Surfaces (HISs) and metasurfaces, researchers

have proposed many low profile antenna configurations. HISs possess in-phase reflection, which reinforces the radiation, and enhances the directivity and matching bandwidth of radiating elements. Most of the proposed dipole and loop element designs that have used HISs as a ground plane, have attained a maximum directivity of 8 dBi. While HISs are more attractive ground planes for low profile antennas, these HISs result in a low directivity as compared to PEC ground planes. Various studies have shown that Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) ground planes are capable of achieving higher directivity, at the expense of matching efficiency, when the spacing

between the radiating element and the PEC ground plane is less than 0.25 lambda. To establish an efficient ground plane for low profile applications, PEC (Perfect Electric Conductor) and PMC (Perfect Magnetic Conductor) ground planes are examined in the vicinity of electric and magnetic radiating elements. The limitation of the two ground planes, in terms of radiation efficiency and the impedance matching, are discussed. Far-field analytical formulations are derived and the results are compared with full-wave EM simulations performed using the High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). Based on PEC and PMC designs, two engineered ground planes are proposed.

The designed ground planes depend on two metasurface properties; namely in-phase reflection and excitation of surface waves. Two ground plane geometries are considered. The first one is designed for a circular loop radiating element, which utilizes a

circular HIS ring deployed on a circular ground plane. The integration of the loop element with the circular HIS ground plane enhances the maximum directivity up to 10.5 dB with a 13% fractional bandwidth. The second ground plane is designed for a square loop radiating element. Unlike the first design, rectangular HIS patches are utilized to control the excitation of surface waves in the principal planes. The final design operates from 3.8 to 5 GHz (27% fractional bandwidth) with a stable broadside maximum realized gain up to 11.9 dBi. To verify the proposed designs, a prototype was fabricated and measurements were conducted. A good agreement between simulations and measurements was observed. Furthermore, multiple square ring elements are embedded within the periodic patches to form a surface wave planar antenna array. Linear and circular polarizations are proposed and compared to a conventional square ring array. The implementation of periodic patches results in a better matching bandwidth and higher broadside gain compared to a conventional array.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Analysis, design and measurements of flat and curved circularly symmetric high impedance surfaces for curvilinear antenna applications

Description

In this dissertation a new wideband circular HIS is proposed. The circular periodicity made it possible to illuminate the surface with a cylindrical TEMz wave and; a novel technique is

In this dissertation a new wideband circular HIS is proposed. The circular periodicity made it possible to illuminate the surface with a cylindrical TEMz wave and; a novel technique is utilized to make it wideband. Two models are developed to analyze the

reflection characteristics of the proposed HIS.

The circularly symmetric high impedance surface is used as a ground plane for the design of a low-profile loop and spiral radiating elements. It is shown that a HIS with circular periodicity provides a wider operational bandwidth for curvilinear radiating elements such, such as loops and spirals, compared to canonical rectangular HISs.

It is also observed that, with the aid of a circular HIS ground plane the gain of a loop and a spiral increases compared to when a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) or rectangular HIS is used as a ground plane. The circular HIS was fabricated and the loop and spiral elements were placed individually in close proximity to it.

Also, due to the growing demand for low-radar signature (RCS) antennas for advanced airborne vehicles, curved and flexible HIS ground planes, which meet both the aerodynamic and low RCS requirements, have recently become popular candidates within the antenna and microwave technology. This encouraged us, to propose a spherical HIS where a 2-D curvature is introduced to the previously designed flat HIS.

The major problem associated with spherical HIS is the impact of the curvature on its reflection properties. After characterization of the flat circular HIS, which is addressed in the first part of this dissertation, a spherical curvature is introduced to the flat circular HIS and its impact on the reflection properties was examined when it was illuminated with the same cylindrical TEMz wave. The same technique, as for the flat HIS ground plane, is utilized to make the spherical HIS wideband. A loop and spiral element were placed in the vicinity of the curved HIS and their performanceswere investigated. The HISs were also fabricated and measurements were conducted to verify the simulations. An excellent agreement was observed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Gain and bandwidth enhancement of ferrite-loaded CBS antenna using material shaping and positioning

Description

Loading a cavity-backed slot (CBS) antenna with ferrite material and applying a biasing static magnetic field can be used to control its resonant frequency. Such a mechanism results in a

Loading a cavity-backed slot (CBS) antenna with ferrite material and applying a biasing static magnetic field can be used to control its resonant frequency. Such a mechanism results in a frequency reconfigurable antenna. However, placing a lossy ferrite material inside the cavity can reduce the gain or negatively impact the impedance bandwidth. This thesis develops guidelines, based on a non-uniform applied magnetic field and non-uniform magnetic field internal to the ferrite specimen, for the design of ferrite-loaded CBS antennas which enhance their gain and tunable bandwidth by shaping the ferrite specimen and judiciously locating it within the cavity. To achieve these objectives, it is necessary to examine the influence of the shape and relative location of the ferrite material, and also the proximity of the ferrite specimen from the probe on the DC magnetic field and RF electric field distributions inside the cavity. The geometry of the probe and its impacts on figures-of-merit of the antenna is of interest as well. Two common cavity backed-slot antennas (rectangular and circular cross-section) were designed, and corresponding simulations and measurements were performed and compared. The cavities were mounted on 30 cm $\times$ 30 cm perfect electric conductor (PEC) ground planes and partially loaded with ferrite material. The ferrites were biased with an external magnetic field produced by either an electromagnet or permanent magnets. Simulations were performed using FEM-based commercial software, Ansys' Maxwell 3D and HFSS. Maxwell 3D is utilized to model the non-uniform DC applied magnetic field and non-uniform magnetic field internal to the ferrite specimen; HFSS however, is used to simulate and obtain the RF characteristics of the antenna. To validate the simulations they were compared with measurements performed in ASU's EM Anechoic Chamber. After many examinations using simulations and measurements, some optimal designs guidelines with respect to the gain, return loss and tunable impedance bandwidth, were obtained and recommended for ferrite-loaded CBS antennas.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013