Matching Items (3)

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The effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiac autonomic response to laboratory stressors

Description

The objective of this study was to examine the potential effects of long term hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system responses to laboratory social stressors. The participants were

The objective of this study was to examine the potential effects of long term hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system responses to laboratory social stressors. The participants were 38 postmenopausal women, 18 using estrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy for at least 2 years and 20 control participants without hormone replacement therapy. All women completed orthostasis (standing and sitting), then speech and math tasks (speech and math were counterbalanced). Cardiovascular measures of sympathetic nervous system (pre-ejection period, PEP) and parasympathetic nervous system (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) along with heart rate were collected throughout all periods (baseline, orthostasis, and stressors). For orthostasis, results of mixed analyses of variance (ANOVAs) showed expected period effects for heart rate, RSA and PEP, but no group or group by period interaction was significant. For the psychological stressors, period main effects were significant for all three variables, suggesting that the tasks were effective at inducing stress. Also, there was a significant interaction between group and period for RSA, demonstrated by greater decrease during the psychological stressor period in the group using HRT. The interactions between group and period for heart rate and PEP were non-significant. These findings support the notion that HRT may slow age-related decreases in parasympathetic responsiveness. Furthermore, changes in vagal reactivity in relation to use of HRT appear to occur within mechanisms involving response and coping with psychological stressors, rather than mechanisms that accommodate basic physiological task such as orthostasis.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Social Affect Regulation and Physical Affection Between Married Partners: An Experimental Examination of the Stress-Buffering Effect of Spousal Touch and the Role of Adult Attachment

Description

Background: When studying how humans regulate their affect, it is important to recognize that affect regulation does not occur in a vacuum. As humans are an inherently social species, affect

Background: When studying how humans regulate their affect, it is important to recognize that affect regulation does not occur in a vacuum. As humans are an inherently social species, affect plays a crucial evolutionary role in social behavior, and social behavior likewise assumes an important role in affect and affect regulation. Emotion researchers are increasingly interested the specific ways people help to regulate and dysregulate one another’s affect, though experimental examinations of the extant models and theory are relatively few. This thesis presents a broad theoretical framework for social affect regulation between close others, considering the role of attachment theory and its developmental foundations for social affect regulation in adulthood. Affectionate and responsive touch is considered a major mechanism of regulatory benefit between people, both developmentally and in adulthood, and is the focus of the present investigation. Method: A total sample of 231 heterosexual married couples were recruited from the community. Participants were assigned to engage in affectionate touch or sit quietly, and/or engage in positive conversation prior to a stress task. Physiological data was collected continuously across the experiment. Hypotheses: Phasic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was used to index the degree of regulatory engagement during the stressor for those who did and did not touch. It was hypothesized that touch would reduce stress appraisal and thus the need for regulatory engagement. This effect was predicted to be greater for those more anxiously attached while increasing the need for regulatory engagement in those more avoidantly attached. Secondarily, partner effects of attachment on sympathetic activation via pre-ejection period (PEP) change were tested. It was predicted that both attachment dimensions would predict a decrease in partner PEP change in the touch condition, with avoidant attachment having the strongest effect. Results: Hierarchical linear modeling techniques were used to account for nonindependence in dyadic observations. The first set of hypotheses were not supported, while the second set were partially supported. Wives’ avoidance significantly predicted husbands’ PEP change, but in the positive direction. This effect also significantly increased in the touch condition. Theoretical considerations and limitations are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Effects of Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation on the ANS and Proprioception: High Frequency TNS Reduces Proprioceptive End-point Error

Description

Previously accomplished research examined sensory integration between upper limb proprioception and tactile sensation. The active proprioceptive-tactile relationship points towards an opportunity to examine neuromodulation effects on sensory integration with respect

Previously accomplished research examined sensory integration between upper limb proprioception and tactile sensation. The active proprioceptive-tactile relationship points towards an opportunity to examine neuromodulation effects on sensory integration with respect to proprioceptive error magnitude and direction. Efforts to improve focus and attention during upper limb proprioceptive tasks results in a decrease of proprioceptive error magnitudes and greater endpoint accuracy. Increased focus and attention can also be correlated to neurophysiological activity in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) during a variety of mental tasks. Through non-invasive trigeminal nerve stimulation, it may be possible to affect the activity of the LC and induce improvements in arousal and attention that would assist in proprioceptive estimation. The trigeminal nerve projects to the LC through the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal complex, providing a pathway similar to the effects seen from vagus nerve stimulation. In this experiment, the effect of trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) on proprioceptive ability is evaluated by the proprioceptive estimation error magnitude and direction, while LC activation via autonomic pathways is indirectly measured using pupil diameter, pupil recovery time, and pupil velocity. TNS decreases proprioceptive error magnitude in 59% of subjects, while having no measurable impact on proprioceptive strategy. Autonomic nervous system changes were observed in 88% of subjects, with mostly parasympathetic activation and a mixed sympathetic effect.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019