Matching Items (4)

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Scaling Up Large-scale Sparse Learning and Its Application to Medical Imaging

Description

Large-scale $\ell_1$-regularized loss minimization problems arise in high-dimensional applications such as compressed sensing and high-dimensional supervised learning, including classification and regression problems. In many applications, it remains challenging to apply

Large-scale $\ell_1$-regularized loss minimization problems arise in high-dimensional applications such as compressed sensing and high-dimensional supervised learning, including classification and regression problems. In many applications, it remains challenging to apply the sparse learning model to large-scale problems that have massive data samples with high-dimensional features. One popular and promising strategy is to scaling up the optimization problem in parallel. Parallel solvers run multiple cores on a shared memory system or a distributed environment to speed up the computation, while the practical usage is limited by the huge dimension in the feature space and synchronization problems.

In this dissertation, I carry out the research along the direction with particular focuses on scaling up the optimization of sparse learning for supervised and unsupervised learning problems. For the supervised learning, I firstly propose an asynchronous parallel solver to optimize the large-scale sparse learning model in a multithreading environment. Moreover, I propose a distributed framework to conduct the learning process when the dataset is distributed stored among different machines. Then the proposed model is further extended to the studies of risk genetic factors for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) among different research institutions, integrating a group feature selection framework to rank the top risk SNPs for AD. For the unsupervised learning problem, I propose a highly efficient solver, termed Stochastic Coordinate Coding (SCC), scaling up the optimization of dictionary learning and sparse coding problems. The common issue for the medical imaging research is that the longitudinal features of patients among different time points are beneficial to study together. To further improve the dictionary learning model, I propose a multi-task dictionary learning method, learning the different task simultaneously and utilizing shared and individual dictionary to encode both consistent and changing imaging features.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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New directions in sparse models for image analysis and restoration

Description

Effective modeling of high dimensional data is crucial in information processing and machine learning. Classical subspace methods have been very effective in such applications. However, over the past few decades,

Effective modeling of high dimensional data is crucial in information processing and machine learning. Classical subspace methods have been very effective in such applications. However, over the past few decades, there has been considerable research towards the development of new modeling paradigms that go beyond subspace methods. This dissertation focuses on the study of sparse models and their interplay with modern machine learning techniques such as manifold, ensemble and graph-based methods, along with their applications in image analysis and recovery. By considering graph relations between data samples while learning sparse models, graph-embedded codes can be obtained for use in unsupervised, supervised and semi-supervised problems. Using experiments on standard datasets, it is demonstrated that the codes obtained from the proposed methods outperform several baseline algorithms. In order to facilitate sparse learning with large scale data, the paradigm of ensemble sparse coding is proposed, and different strategies for constructing weak base models are developed. Experiments with image recovery and clustering demonstrate that these ensemble models perform better when compared to conventional sparse coding frameworks. When examples from the data manifold are available, manifold constraints can be incorporated with sparse models and two approaches are proposed to combine sparse coding with manifold projection. The improved performance of the proposed techniques in comparison to sparse coding approaches is demonstrated using several image recovery experiments. In addition to these approaches, it might be required in some applications to combine multiple sparse models with different regularizations. In particular, combining an unconstrained sparse model with non-negative sparse coding is important in image analysis, and it poses several algorithmic and theoretical challenges. A convex and an efficient greedy algorithm for recovering combined representations are proposed. Theoretical guarantees on sparsity thresholds for exact recovery using these algorithms are derived and recovery performance is also demonstrated using simulations on synthetic data. Finally, the problem of non-linear compressive sensing, where the measurement process is carried out in feature space obtained using non-linear transformations, is considered. An optimized non-linear measurement system is proposed, and improvements in recovery performance are demonstrated in comparison to using random measurements as well as optimized linear measurements.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Sparse methods in image understanding and computer vision

Description

Image understanding has been playing an increasingly crucial role in vision applications. Sparse models form an important component in image understanding, since the statistics of natural images reveal the presence

Image understanding has been playing an increasingly crucial role in vision applications. Sparse models form an important component in image understanding, since the statistics of natural images reveal the presence of sparse structure. Sparse methods lead to parsimonious models, in addition to being efficient for large scale learning. In sparse modeling, data is represented as a sparse linear combination of atoms from a "dictionary" matrix. This dissertation focuses on understanding different aspects of sparse learning, thereby enhancing the use of sparse methods by incorporating tools from machine learning. With the growing need to adapt models for large scale data, it is important to design dictionaries that can model the entire data space and not just the samples considered. By exploiting the relation of dictionary learning to 1-D subspace clustering, a multilevel dictionary learning algorithm is developed, and it is shown to outperform conventional sparse models in compressed recovery, and image denoising. Theoretical aspects of learning such as algorithmic stability and generalization are considered, and ensemble learning is incorporated for effective large scale learning. In addition to building strategies for efficiently implementing 1-D subspace clustering, a discriminative clustering approach is designed to estimate the unknown mixing process in blind source separation. By exploiting the non-linear relation between the image descriptors, and allowing the use of multiple features, sparse methods can be made more effective in recognition problems. The idea of multiple kernel sparse representations is developed, and algorithms for learning dictionaries in the feature space are presented. Using object recognition experiments on standard datasets it is shown that the proposed approaches outperform other sparse coding-based recognition frameworks. Furthermore, a segmentation technique based on multiple kernel sparse representations is developed, and successfully applied for automated brain tumor identification. Using sparse codes to define the relation between data samples can lead to a more robust graph embedding for unsupervised clustering. By performing discriminative embedding using sparse coding-based graphs, an algorithm for measuring the glomerular number in kidney MRI images is developed. Finally, approaches to build dictionaries for local sparse coding of image descriptors are presented, and applied to object recognition and image retrieval.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Semantic sparse learning in images and videos

Description

Many learning models have been proposed for various tasks in visual computing. Popular examples include hidden Markov models and support vector machines. Recently, sparse-representation-based learning methods have attracted a lot

Many learning models have been proposed for various tasks in visual computing. Popular examples include hidden Markov models and support vector machines. Recently, sparse-representation-based learning methods have attracted a lot of attention in the computer vision field, largely because of their impressive performance in many applications. In the literature, many of such sparse learning methods focus on designing or application of some learning techniques for certain feature space without much explicit consideration on possible interaction between the underlying semantics of the visual data and the employed learning technique. Rich semantic information in most visual data, if properly incorporated into algorithm design, should help achieving improved performance while delivering intuitive interpretation of the algorithmic outcomes. My study addresses the problem of how to explicitly consider the semantic information of the visual data in the sparse learning algorithms. In this work, we identify four problems which are of great importance and broad interest to the community. Specifically, a novel approach is proposed to incorporate label information to learn a dictionary which is not only reconstructive but also discriminative; considering the formation process of face images, a novel image decomposition approach for an ensemble of correlated images is proposed, where a subspace is built from the decomposition and applied to face recognition; based on the observation that, the foreground (or salient) objects are sparse in input domain and the background is sparse in frequency domain, a novel and efficient spatio-temporal saliency detection algorithm is proposed to identify the salient regions in video; and a novel hidden Markov model learning approach is proposed by utilizing a sparse set of pairwise comparisons among the data, which is easier to obtain and more meaningful, consistent than tradition labels, in many scenarios, e.g., evaluating motion skills in surgical simulations. In those four problems, different types of semantic information are modeled and incorporated in designing sparse learning algorithms for the corresponding visual computing tasks. Several real world applications are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, including, face recognition, spatio-temporal saliency detection, abnormality detection, spatio-temporal interest point detection, motion analysis and emotion recognition. In those applications, data of different modalities are involved, ranging from audio signal, image to video. Experiments on large scale real world data with comparisons to state-of-art methods confirm the proposed approaches deliver salient advantages, showing adding those semantic information dramatically improve the performances of the general sparse learning methods.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014