Model development and analysis of distribution feeders with high penetration of PV generation resources
An increase in the number of inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) generators on existing distribution feeders affects the design, operation, and control of the distri- bution systems. Existing distribution system analysis tools are capable of supporting only snapshot and quasi-static analyses. Capturing the dynamic effects of the PV generators during the variation in the distribution system states is necessary when studying the effects of controller bandwidths, multiple voltage correction devices, and anti-islanding. This work explores the use of dynamic phasors and differential algebraic equations (DAE) for impact analysis of the PV generators on the existing distribution feeders.
The voltage unbalance induced by PV generators can aggravate the existing unbalance due to load mismatch. An increased phase unbalance significantly adds to the neutral currents, excessive neutral to ground voltages and violate the standards for unbalance factor. The objective of this study is to analyze and quantify the impacts of unbalanced PV installations on a distribution feeder. Additionally, a power electronic converter solution is proposed to mitigate the identified impacts and validate the solution's effectiveness through detailed simulations in OpenDSS.
The benefits associated with the use of energy storage systems for electric- utility-related applications are also studied. This research provides a generalized framework for strategic deployment of a lithium-ion based energy storage system to increase their benefits in a distribution feeder. A significant amount of work has been performed for a detailed characterization of the life cycle costs of an energy storage system. The objectives include - reduction of the substation transformer losses, reduction of the life cycle cost for an energy storage system, and accommodate the PV variability.
The distribution feeder laterals in the distribution feeder with relatively high PV generation as compared to the load can be operated as microgrids to achieve reliability, power quality and economic benefits. However, the renewable resources are intermittent and stochastic in nature. A novel approach for sizing and scheduling the energy storage system and microtrubine is proposed for reliable operation of microgrids. The size and schedule of the energy storage system and microturbine are determined using Benders' decomposition, considering the PV generation as a stochastic resource.