Matching Items (6)

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Luminescent cyclometalated platinum and palladium complexes with novel photophysical properties

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Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a rapidly emerging technology based on organic thin film semiconductors. Recently, there has been substantial investment in their use in displays. In less than

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a rapidly emerging technology based on organic thin film semiconductors. Recently, there has been substantial investment in their use in displays. In less than a decade, OLEDs have grown from a promising academic curiosity into a multi-billion dollar global industry. At the heart of an OLED are emissive molecules that generate light in response to electrical stimulation. Ideal emitters are efficient, compatible with existing materials, long lived, and produce light predominantly at useful wavelengths. Developing an understanding of the photophysical processes that dictate the luminescent properties of emissive materials is vital to their continued development. Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 provide an introduction to the topics presented and the laboratory methods used to explore them. Chapter 3 discusses a series of tridentate platinum complexes. A synthetic method utilizing microwave irradiation was explored, as well as a study of the effects ligand structure had on the excited state properties. Results and techniques developed in this endeavor were used as a foundation for the work undertaken in later chapters. Chapter 4 introduces a series of tetradentate platinum complexes that share a phenoxy-pyridyl (popy) motif. The new molecular design improved efficiency through increased rigidity and modification of the excited state properties. This class of platinum complexes were markedly more efficient than those presented in Chapter 3, and devices employing a green emitting complex of the series achieved nearly 100% electron-to-photon conversion efficiency in an OLED device. Chapter 5 adapts the ligand structure developed in Chapter 4 to palladium. The resulting complexes exceed reported efficiencies of palladium complexes by an order of magnitude. This chapter also provides the first report of a palladium complex as an emitter in an OLED device. Chapter 6 discusses the continuation of development efforts to include carbazolyl components in the ligand. These complexes possess interesting luminescent properties including ultra-narrow emission and metal assisted delayed fluorescence (MADF) emission.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Structural and optical properties of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductors

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This dissertation is on the study of structural and optical properties of some III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors. The first part of this dissertation is a study of the deformation

This dissertation is on the study of structural and optical properties of some III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors. The first part of this dissertation is a study of the deformation mechanisms associated with nanoindentation and nanoscratching of InP, GaN, and ZnO crystals. The second part is an investigation of some fundamental issues regarding compositional fluctuations and microstructure in GaInNAs and InAlN alloys. In the first part, the microstructure of (001) InP scratched in an atomic force microscope with a small diamond tip has been studied as a function of applied normal force and crystalline direction in order to understand at the nanometer scale the deformation mechanisms in the zinc-blende structure. TEM images show deeper dislocation propagation for scratches along <110> compared to <100>. High strain fields were observed in <100> scratches, indicating hardening due to locking of dislocations gliding on different slip planes. Reverse plastic flow have been observed in <110> scratches in the form of pop-up events that result from recovery of stored elastic strain. In a separate study, nanoindentation-induced plastic deformation has been studied in c-, a-, and m-plane ZnO single crystals and c-plane GaN respectively, to study the deformation mechanism in wurtzite hexagonal structures. TEM results reveal that the prime deformation mechanism is slip on basal planes and in some cases, on pyramidal planes, and strain built up along particular directions. No evidence of phase transformation or cracking was observed in both materials. CL imaging reveals quenching of near band-edge emission by dislocations. In the second part, compositional inhomogeneity in quaternary GaInNAs and ternary InAlN alloys has been studied using TEM. It is shown that exposure to antimony during growth of GaInNAs results in uniform chemical composition in the epilayer, as antimony suppresses the surface mobility of adatoms that otherwise leads to two-dimensional growth and elemental segregation. In a separate study, compositional instability is observed in lattice-matched InAlN films grown on GaN, for growth beyond a certain thickness. Beyond 200 nm of thickness, two sub-layers with different indium content are observed, the top one with lower indium content.

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  • 2013

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The optical properties of nitride semiconductors for visible light emission

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Nitride semiconductors have wide applications in electronics and optoelectronics technologies. Understanding the nature of the optical recombination process and its effects on luminescence efficiency is important for the development of

Nitride semiconductors have wide applications in electronics and optoelectronics technologies. Understanding the nature of the optical recombination process and its effects on luminescence efficiency is important for the development of novel devices. This dissertation deals with the optical properties of nitride semiconductors, including GaN epitaxial layers and more complex heterostructures. The emission characteristics are examined by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and imaging, and are correlated with the structural and electrical properties studied by transmission electron microscopy and electron holography. Four major areas are covered in this dissertation, which are described next. The effect of strain on the emission characteristics in wurtzite GaN has been studied. The values of the residual strain in GaN epilayers with different dislocation densities are determined by x-ray diffraction, and the relationship between exciton emission energy and the in-plane residual strain is demonstrated. It shows that the emission energy increases withthe magnitude of the in-plane compressive strain. The temperature dependence of the emission characteristics in cubic GaN has been studied. It is observed that the exciton emission and donor-acceptor pair recombination behave differently with temperature. The donor-bound exciton binding energy has been measured to be 13 meV from the temperature dependence of the emission spectrum. It is also found that the ionization energies for both acceptors and donors are smaller in cubic compared with hexagonal structures, which should contribute to higher doping efficiencies. A comprehensive study on the structural and optical properties is presented for InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting in the blue, green, and yellow regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Transmission electron microscopy images indicate the presence of indium inhomogeneties which should be responsible for carrier localization. The temperature dependence of emission luminescence shows that the carrier localization effects become more significant with increasing emission wavelength. On the other hand, the effect of non-radiative recombination on luminescence efficiency also varies with the emission wavelength. The fast increase of the non-radiative recombination rate with temperature in the green emitting QWs contributes to the lower efficiency compared with the blue emitting QWs. The possible saturation of non-radiative recombination above 100 K may explain the unexpected high emission efficiency for the yellow emitting QWs Finally, the effects of InGaN underlayers on the electronic and optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting in visible spectral regions have been studied. A significant improvement of the emission efficiency is observed, which is associated with a blue shift in the emission energy, a reduced recombination lifetime, an increased spatial homogeneity in the luminescence, and a weaker internal field across the quantum wells. These are explained by a partial strain relaxation introduced by the InGaN underlayer, which is measured by reciprocal space mapping of the x-ray diffraction intensity.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Expanding the optical capabilities of germanium in the infrared range through group IV and III-V-IV alloy systems

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The work described in this thesis explores the synthesis of new semiconductors in the Si-Ge-Sn system for application in Si-photonics. Direct gap Ge1-ySny (y=0.12-0.16) alloys with enhanced light emission and

The work described in this thesis explores the synthesis of new semiconductors in the Si-Ge-Sn system for application in Si-photonics. Direct gap Ge1-ySny (y=0.12-0.16) alloys with enhanced light emission and absorption are pursued. Monocrystalline layers are grown on Si platforms via epitaxy-driven reactions between Sn- and Ge-hydrides using compositionally graded buffer layers that mitigate lattice mismatch between the epilayer and Si platforms. Prototype p-i-n structures are fabricated and are found to exhibit direct gap electroluminescence and tunable absorption edges between 2200 and 2700 nm indicating applications in LEDs and detectors. Additionally, a low pressure technique is described producing pseudomorphic Ge1-ySny alloys in the compositional range y=0.06-0.17. Synthesis of these materials is achieved at ultra-low temperatures resulting in nearly defect-free films that far exceed the critical thicknesses predicted by thermodynamic considerations, and provide a chemically driven route toward materials with properties typically associated with molecular beam epitaxy.

Silicon incorporation into Ge1-ySny yields a new class of Ge1-x-ySixSny (y>x) ternary alloys using reactions between Ge3H8, Si4H10, and SnD4. These materials contain small amounts of Si (x=0.05-0.08) and Sn contents of y=0.1-0.15. Photoluminescence studies indicate an intensity enhancement relative to materials with lower Sn contents (y=0.05-0.09). These materials may serve as thermally robust alternatives to Ge1-ySny for mid-infrared (IR) optoelectronic applications.

An extension of the above work is the discovery of a new class of Ge-like Group III-V-IV hybrids with compositions Ga(As1–xPx)Ge3 (x=0.01-0.90) and (GaP)yGe5–2y related to Ge1-x-ySixSny in structure and properties. These materials are prepared by chemical vapor deposition of reactive Ga-hydrides with P(GeH3)3 and As(GeH3)3 custom precursors as the sources of P, As, and Ge incorporating isolated GaAs and GaP donor-acceptor pairs into diamond-like Ge-based structures. Photoluminescence studies reveal bandgaps in the near-IR and large bowing of the optical behavior relative to linear interpolation of the III-V and Ge end members. Similar materials in the Al-Sb-B-P system are also prepared and characterized. The common theme of the above topics is the design and fabrication of new optoelectronic materials that can be fully compatible with Si-based technologies for expanding the optoelectronic capabilities of Ge into the mid-IR and beyond through compositional tuning of the diamond lattice.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Layer structured gallium chalcogenides: controlled synthesis and emerging properties

Description

Layer structured two dimensional (2D) semiconductors have gained much interest due to their intriguing optical and electronic properties induced by the unique van der Waals bonding between layers. The extraordinary

Layer structured two dimensional (2D) semiconductors have gained much interest due to their intriguing optical and electronic properties induced by the unique van der Waals bonding between layers. The extraordinary success for graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) has triggered a constant search for novel 2D semiconductors beyond them. Gallium chalcogenides, belonging to the group III-VI compounds, are a new class of 2D semiconductors that carry a variety of interesting properties including wide spectrum coverage of their bandgaps and thus are promising candidates for next generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. Pushing these materials toward applications requires more controllable synthesis methods and facile routes for engineering their properties on demand.

In this dissertation, vapor phase transport is used to synthesize layer structured gallium chalcogenide nanomaterials with highly controlled structure, morphology and properties, with particular emphasis on GaSe, GaTe and GaSeTe alloys. Multiple routes are used to manipulate the physical properties of these materials including strain engineering, defect engineering and phase engineering. First, 2D GaSe with controlled morphologies is synthesized on Si(111) substrates and the bandgap is significantly reduced from 2 eV to 1.7 eV due to lateral tensile strain. By applying vertical compressive strain using a diamond anvil cell, the band gap can be further reduced to 1.4 eV. Next, pseudo-1D GaTe nanomaterials with a monoclinic structure are synthesized on various substrates. The product exhibits highly anisotropic atomic structure and properties characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and angle resolved Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Multiple sharp PL emissions below the bandgap are found due to defects localized at the edges and grain boundaries. Finally, layer structured GaSe1-xTex alloys across the full composition range are synthesized on GaAs(111) substrates. Results show that GaAs(111) substrate plays an essential role in stabilizing the metastable single-phase alloys within the miscibility gaps. A hexagonal to monoclinic phase crossover is observed as the Te content increases. The phase crossover features coexistence of both phases and isotropic to anisotropic structural transition.

Overall, this work provides insights into the controlled synthesis of gallium chalcogenides and opens up new opportunities towards optoelectronic applications that require tunable material properties.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Optical properties of wurtzite semiconductors studied using cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy

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The work contained in this dissertation is focused on the optical properties of direct band gap semiconductors which crystallize in a wurtzite structure: more specifically, the III-nitrides and ZnO. By

The work contained in this dissertation is focused on the optical properties of direct band gap semiconductors which crystallize in a wurtzite structure: more specifically, the III-nitrides and ZnO. By using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, many of their properties have been investigated, including band gaps, defect energy levels, carrier lifetimes, strain states, exciton binding energies, and effects of electron irradiation on luminescence. Part of this work is focused on p-type Mg-doped GaN and InGaN. These materials are extremely important for the fabrication of visible light emitting diodes and diode lasers and their complex nature is currently not entirely understood. The luminescence of Mg-doped GaN films has been correlated with electrical and structural measurements in order to understand the behavior of hydrogen in the material. Deeply-bound excitons emitting near 3.37 and 3.42 eV are observed in films with a significant hydrogen concentration during cathodoluminescence at liquid helium temperatures. These radiative transitions are unstable during electron irradiation. Our observations suggest a hydrogen-related nature, as opposed to a previous assignment of stacking fault luminescence. The intensity of the 3.37 eV transition can be correlated with the electrical activation of the Mg acceptors. Next, the acceptor energy level of Mg in InGaN is shown to decrease significantly with an increase in the indium composition. This also corresponds to a decrease in the resistivity of these films. In addition, the hole concentration in multiple quantum well light emitting diode structures is much more uniform in the active region when Mg-doped InGaN (instead of Mg-doped GaN) is used. These results will help improve the efficiency of light emitting diodes, especially in the green/yellow color range. Also, the improved hole transport may prove to be important for the development of photovoltaic devices. Cathodoluminescence studies have also been performed on nanoindented ZnO crystals. Bulk, single crystal ZnO was indented using a sub-micron spherical diamond tip on various surface orientations. The resistance to deformation (the "hardness") of each surface orientation was measured, with the c-plane being the most resistive. This is due to the orientation of the easy glide planes, the c-planes, being positioned perpendicularly to the applied load. The a-plane oriented crystal is the least resistive to deformation. Cathodoluminescence imaging allows for the correlation of the luminescence with the regions located near the indentation. Sub-nanometer shifts in the band edge emission have been assigned to residual strain the crystals. The a- and m-plane oriented crystals show two-fold symmetry with regions of compressive and tensile strain located parallel and perpendicular to the ±c-directions, respectively. The c-plane oriented crystal shows six-fold symmetry with regions of tensile strain extending along the six equivalent a-directions.

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Date Created
  • 2013