Matching Items (5)

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Advances in Motion Estimators for Applications in Computer Vision

Description

Motion estimation is a core task in computer vision and many applications utilize optical flow methods as fundamental tools to analyze motion in images and videos. Optical flow is the

Motion estimation is a core task in computer vision and many applications utilize optical flow methods as fundamental tools to analyze motion in images and videos. Optical flow is the apparent motion of objects in image sequences that results from relative motion between the objects and the imaging perspective. Today, optical flow fields are utilized to solve problems in various areas such as object detection and tracking, interpolation, visual odometry, etc. In this dissertation, three problems from different areas of computer vision and the solutions that make use of modified optical flow methods are explained.

The contributions of this dissertation are approaches and frameworks that introduce i) a new optical flow-based interpolation method to achieve minimally divergent velocimetry data, ii) a framework that improves the accuracy of change detection algorithms in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, and iii) a set of new methods to integrate Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1HMRSI) data into threedimensional (3D) neuronavigation systems for tumor biopsies.

In the first application an optical flow-based approach for the interpolation of minimally divergent velocimetry data is proposed. The velocimetry data of incompressible fluids contain signals that describe the flow velocity. The approach uses the additional flow velocity information to guide the interpolation process towards reduced divergence in the interpolated data.

In the second application a framework that mainly consists of optical flow methods and other image processing and computer vision techniques to improve object extraction from synthetic aperture radar images is proposed. The proposed framework is used for distinguishing between actual motion and detected motion due to misregistration in SAR image sets and it can lead to more accurate and meaningful change detection and improve object extraction from a SAR datasets.

In the third application a set of new methods that aim to improve upon the current state-of-the-art in neuronavigation through the use of detailed three-dimensional (3D) 1H-MRSI data are proposed. The result is a progressive form of online MRSI-guided neuronavigation that is demonstrated through phantom validation and clinical application.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Spatio-temporal data mining to detect changes and clusters in trajectories

Description

With the rapid development of mobile sensing technologies like GPS, RFID, sensors in smartphones, etc., capturing position data in the form of trajectories has become easy. Moving object trajectory analysis

With the rapid development of mobile sensing technologies like GPS, RFID, sensors in smartphones, etc., capturing position data in the form of trajectories has become easy. Moving object trajectory analysis is a growing area of interest these days owing to its applications in various domains such as marketing, security, traffic monitoring and management, etc. To better understand movement behaviors from the raw mobility data, this doctoral work provides analytic models for analyzing trajectory data. As a first contribution, a model is developed to detect changes in trajectories with time. If the taxis moving in a city are viewed as sensors that provide real time information of the traffic in the city, a change in these trajectories with time can reveal that the road network has changed. To detect changes, trajectories are modeled with a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). A modified training algorithm, for parameter estimation in HMM, called m-BaumWelch, is used to develop likelihood estimates under assumed changes and used to detect changes in trajectory data with time. Data from vehicles are used to test the method for change detection. Secondly, sequential pattern mining is used to develop a model to detect changes in frequent patterns occurring in trajectory data. The aim is to answer two questions: Are the frequent patterns still frequent in the new data? If they are frequent, has the time interval distribution in the pattern changed? Two different approaches are considered for change detection, frequency-based approach and distribution-based approach. The methods are illustrated with vehicle trajectory data. Finally, a model is developed for clustering and outlier detection in semantic trajectories. A challenge with clustering semantic trajectories is that both numeric and categorical attributes are present. Another problem to be addressed while clustering is that trajectories can be of different lengths and also have missing values. A tree-based ensemble is used to address these problems. The approach is extended to outlier detection in semantic trajectories.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A probabilistic framework of transfer learning- theory and application

Description

Transfer learning refers to statistical machine learning methods that integrate the knowledge of one domain (source domain) and the data of another domain (target domain) in an appropriate way, in

Transfer learning refers to statistical machine learning methods that integrate the knowledge of one domain (source domain) and the data of another domain (target domain) in an appropriate way, in order to develop a model for the target domain that is better than a model using the data of the target domain alone. Transfer learning emerged because classic machine learning, when used to model different domains, has to take on one of two mechanical approaches. That is, it will either assume the data distributions of the different domains to be the same and thereby developing one model that fits all, or develop one model for each domain independently. Transfer learning, on the other hand, aims to mitigate the limitations of the two approaches by accounting for both the similarity and specificity of related domains. The objective of my dissertation research is to develop new transfer learning methods and demonstrate the utility of the methods in real-world applications. Specifically, in my methodological development, I focus on two different transfer learning scenarios: spatial transfer learning across different domains and temporal transfer learning along time in the same domain. Furthermore, I apply the proposed spatial transfer learning approach to modeling of degenerate biological systems.Degeneracy is a well-known characteristic, widely-existing in many biological systems, and contributes to the heterogeneity, complexity, and robustness of biological systems. In particular, I study the application of one degenerate biological system which is to use transcription factor (TF) binding sites to predict gene expression across multiple cell lines. Also, I apply the proposed temporal transfer learning approach to change detection of dynamic network data. Change detection is a classic research area in Statistical Process Control (SPC), but change detection in network data has been limited studied. I integrate the temporal transfer learning method called the Network State Space Model (NSSM) and SPC and formulate the problem of change detection from dynamic networks into a covariance monitoring problem. I demonstrate the performance of the NSSM in change detection of dynamic social networks.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Methods for calibration, registration, and change detection in robot mapping applications

Description

Multi-sensor fusion is a fundamental problem in Robot Perception. For a robot to operate in a real world environment, multiple sensors are often needed. Thus, fusing data from various sensors

Multi-sensor fusion is a fundamental problem in Robot Perception. For a robot to operate in a real world environment, multiple sensors are often needed. Thus, fusing data from various sensors accurately is vital for robot perception. In the first part of this thesis, the problem of fusing information from a LIDAR, a color camera and a thermal camera to build RGB-Depth-Thermal (RGBDT) maps is investigated. An algorithm that solves a non-linear optimization problem to compute the relative pose between the cameras and the LIDAR is presented. The relative pose estimate is then used to find the color and thermal texture of each LIDAR point. Next, the various sources of error that can cause the mis-coloring of a LIDAR point after the cross- calibration are identified. Theoretical analyses of these errors reveal that the coloring errors due to noisy LIDAR points, errors in the estimation of the camera matrix, and errors in the estimation of translation between the sensors disappear with distance. But errors in the estimation of the rotation between the sensors causes the coloring error to increase with distance.

On a robot (vehicle) with multiple sensors, sensor fusion algorithms allow us to represent the data in the vehicle frame. But data acquired temporally in the vehicle frame needs to be registered in a global frame to obtain a map of the environment. Mapping techniques involving the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm and the Normal Distributions Transform (NDT) assume that a good initial estimate of the transformation between the 3D scans is available. This restricts the ability to stitch maps that were acquired at different times. Mapping can become flexible if maps that were acquired temporally can be merged later. To this end, the second part of this thesis focuses on developing an automated algorithm that fuses two maps by finding a congruent set of five points forming a pyramid.

Mapping has various application domains beyond Robot Navigation. The third part of this thesis considers a unique application domain where the surface displace- ments caused by an earthquake are to be recovered using pre- and post-earthquake LIDAR data. A technique to recover the 3D surface displacements is developed and the results are presented on real earthquake datasets: El Mayur Cucupa earthquake, Mexico, 2010 and Fukushima earthquake, Japan, 2011.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Probabilistic topic models for human emotion analysis

Description

While discrete emotions like joy, anger, disgust etc. are quite popular, continuous

emotion dimensions like arousal and valence are gaining popularity within the research

community due to an increase in the availability

While discrete emotions like joy, anger, disgust etc. are quite popular, continuous

emotion dimensions like arousal and valence are gaining popularity within the research

community due to an increase in the availability of datasets annotated with these

emotions. Unlike the discrete emotions, continuous emotions allow modeling of subtle

and complex affect dimensions but are difficult to predict.

Dimension reduction techniques form the core of emotion recognition systems and

help create a new feature space that is more helpful in predicting emotions. But these

techniques do not necessarily guarantee a better predictive capability as most of them

are unsupervised, especially in regression learning. In emotion recognition literature,

supervised dimension reduction techniques have not been explored much and in this

work a solution is provided through probabilistic topic models. Topic models provide

a strong probabilistic framework to embed new learning paradigms and modalities.

In this thesis, the graphical structure of Latent Dirichlet Allocation has been explored

and new models tuned to emotion recognition and change detection have been built.

In this work, it has been shown that the double mixture structure of topic models

helps 1) to visualize feature patterns, and 2) to project features onto a topic simplex

that is more predictive of human emotions, when compared to popular techniques

like PCA and KernelPCA. Traditionally, topic models have been used on quantized

features but in this work, a continuous topic model called the Dirichlet Gaussian

Mixture model has been proposed. Evaluation of DGMM has shown that while modeling

videos, performance of LDA models can be replicated even without quantizing

the features. Until now, topic models have not been explored in a supervised context

of video analysis and thus a Regularized supervised topic model (RSLDA) that

models video and audio features is introduced. RSLDA learning algorithm performs

both dimension reduction and regularized linear regression simultaneously, and has outperformed supervised dimension reduction techniques like SPCA and Correlation

based feature selection algorithms. In a first of its kind, two new topic models, Adaptive

temporal topic model (ATTM) and SLDA for change detection (SLDACD) have

been developed for predicting concept drift in time series data. These models do not

assume independence of consecutive frames and outperform traditional topic models

in detecting local and global changes respectively.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015