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High resolution spectroscopy of metal-containing molecules and construction of resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS)

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This thesis describes the studies for two groups of molecules in the gas-phase: (a) copper monofluoride (CuF) and copper hydroxide (CuOH); (b) thorium monoxide (ThO) and tungsten carbide (WC). Copper-containing molecules (Group a) are selected to investigate the ionic bonding

This thesis describes the studies for two groups of molecules in the gas-phase: (a) copper monofluoride (CuF) and copper hydroxide (CuOH); (b) thorium monoxide (ThO) and tungsten carbide (WC). Copper-containing molecules (Group a) are selected to investigate the ionic bonding in transition metal-containing molecules because they have a relatively simple electronic state distribution due to the nearly filled 3d-orbital. ThO and WC (Group b) are in support of particle physics for the determination of electron electric dipole moment (eEDM), de, the existence of which indicates new physics beyond the Standard Model. The determination of the tiny eEDM requires large electric fields applied to the electron. The 3(Delta)1 states for heavy polar molecules were proposed [E. R. Meyer, J. L. Bohn, and M. P. Deskevich, Phys. Rev. A 73, 062108 (2006)] to determine de with the following attractive features: (1) large electric dipole moments; (2) large internal electric fields, Eeff, experienced by valence electrons; (3) nearly degenerate omega-doublets; (4) extremely small magnetic dipole moments. The H3(Delta)1 state for ThO and the X3(Delta)1 state for WC are both good candidates. Spectroscopic parameters (i.e. molecular electric and magnetic dipole moments, omega-doubling parameters, etc) are required for the 3(Delta)1 states of ThO and WC. High resolution optical spectra (linewidth ~50 MHz) of CuF, CuOH, ThO and WC were recorded field-free and in the presence of a static electric field (or magnetic field) using laser ablation source/supersonic expansion and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. The spectra were modeled by a zero-field effective Hamiltonian operator and a Stark (or Zeeman) Hamiltonian operator with various molecular parameters. The determined molecular parameters are compared to theoretical predictions. The small omega-doubling parameter was well determined using the pump/probe microwave optical double resonance (PPMODR) technique with a much higher resolution (linewidth ~60 kHz) than optical spectroscopy. In addition to the above mentioned studies of the two groups of molecules, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) combined with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed to identify the molecules responsible for observed LIF signals. The operation of this spectrometer has been tested by recording the mass spectrum of Ti/O2 and the REMPI spectrum for TiO using a two-color excitation scheme.

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Date Created
2012

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Optical spectroscopy of heavy element containing molecules in support of fundamental physics

Description

Transient molecules are of great importance having proposed applications in quantum science and technology and tests of fundamental physics. In the present dissertation, the transient molecules studied are SrOH, ThF, ThCl, YbF and YbOH; each having been selected because of

Transient molecules are of great importance having proposed applications in quantum science and technology and tests of fundamental physics. In the present dissertation, the transient molecules studied are SrOH, ThF, ThCl, YbF and YbOH; each having been selected because of their proposed application. Specifically, SrOH is a candidate of constructing a molecular magneto-optical trap (MOT). The simple actinide molecules, ThF and ThCl, were selected as ligand bonding model systems to gain insight into chemical processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel. The lanthanides YbF and YbOH are venues for the determination of electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) and the studies in this dissertation provide the requisite properties for those experiments.

Intense supersonic molecular beams of these transient molecules were generated via laser ablation and spectroscopically characterized using a novel medium-resolution two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopic approach, as well as high-resolution laser induced fluorescence (LIF). The 2D medium resolution approach, which was used in the studies SrOH, ThF, ThCl and YbOH, uses a multiplexing method that simultaneously records dispersed fluorescence and excitation spectra. A significant advantage of 2D-LIF imaging is that all the electronics states can be targeted to determine the electronics states and associated vibrational spacing individually. Consequently, in the 2D spectra of ThF, ThCl and YbOH, several previously unobserved band systems have been detected in one single scan. For the DF spectra of SrOH and YbOH, the determined branching ratios show that the transitions of these molecules are diagonal (i.e. Δv=0), which is essential for the proposed potential for laser cooling. In the high-resolution of YbF, ThF, ThCl and SrOH optical spectra were recorded to an accuracy of ±30 MHz, which represents an unprecedented precision of 1:10+8.

In addition to field free spectra, optical Stark and Zeeman studies were performed to determine the most fundamental magneto-and electro-static properties. Effective Hamiltonian operators were employed to analyze the recorded spectra and determine the spectroscopic parameters. This data set also establishes a contribution toward developing new computational methodologies for treating relativistic effects and electron correlation.

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Date Created
2019