Matching Items (6)

151383-Thumbnail Image.png

Upper body motion analysis using kinect for stroke rehabilitation at the home

Description

Motion capture using cost-effective sensing technology is challenging and the huge success of Microsoft Kinect has been attracting researchers to uncover the potential of using this technology into computer vision

Motion capture using cost-effective sensing technology is challenging and the huge success of Microsoft Kinect has been attracting researchers to uncover the potential of using this technology into computer vision applications. In this thesis, an upper-body motion analysis in a home-based system for stroke rehabilitation using novel RGB-D camera - Kinect is presented. We address this problem by first conducting a systematic analysis of the usability of Kinect for motion analysis in stroke rehabilitation. Then a hybrid upper body tracking approach is proposed which combines off-the-shelf skeleton tracking with a novel depth-fused mean shift tracking method. We proposed several kinematic features reliably extracted from the proposed inexpensive and portable motion capture system and classifiers that correlate torso movement to clinical measures of unimpaired and impaired. Experiment results show that the proposed sensing and analysis works reliably on measuring torso movement quality and is promising for end-point tracking. The system is currently being deployed for large-scale evaluations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

155682-Thumbnail Image.png

On the effect of walking surface stiffness on inter-leg coordination during human walking: a unique perspective to robot-assisted gait rehabilitation

Description

Millions of individuals suffer from gait impairments due to stroke or other neurological disorders. A primary goal of patients is to walk independently, but most patients only achieve a

Millions of individuals suffer from gait impairments due to stroke or other neurological disorders. A primary goal of patients is to walk independently, but most patients only achieve a poor functional outcome five years after injury. Despite the growing interest in using robotic devices for rehabilitation of sensorimotor function, state-of-the-art robotic interventions in gait therapy have not resulted in improved outcomes when compared to traditional treadmill-based therapy. Because bipedal walking requires neural coupling and dynamic interactions between the legs, a fundamental understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms of inter-leg coordination during walking is needed to inform robotic interventions in gait therapy. This dissertation presents a systematic exploration of sensorimotor mechanisms of inter-leg coordination by studying the effect of unilateral perturbations of the walking surface stiffness on contralateral muscle activation in healthy populations. An analysis of the contribution of several sensory modalities to the muscle activation of the opposite leg provides new insight into the sensorimotor control mechanisms utilized in human walking, including the role of supra-spinal neural circuits in inter-leg coordination. Based on these insights, a model is created which relates the unilateral deflection of the walking surface to the resulting neuromuscular activation in the opposite leg. Additionally, case studies with hemiplegic walkers indicate the existence of the observed mechanism in neurologically impaired walkers. The results of this dissertation suggest a novel approach to gait therapy for hemiplegic patients in which desired muscle activity is evoked in the impaired leg by only interacting with the healthy leg. One of the most significant advantages of this approach over current rehabilitation protocols is the safety of the patient since there is no direct manipulation of the impaired leg. Therefore, the methods and results presented in this dissertation represent a potential paradigm shift in robot-assisted gait therapy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

151271-Thumbnail Image.png

Behavioral strategies for stable maneuvers during locomotion

Description

Humans moving in the environment must frequently change walking speed and direction to negotiate obstacles and maintain balance. Maneuverability and stability requirements account for a significant part of daily life.

Humans moving in the environment must frequently change walking speed and direction to negotiate obstacles and maintain balance. Maneuverability and stability requirements account for a significant part of daily life. While constant-average-velocity (CAV) human locomotion in walking and running has been studied extensively unsteady locomotion has received far less attention. Although some studies have described the biomechanics and neurophysiology of maneuvers, the underlying mechanisms that humans employ to control unsteady running are still not clear. My dissertation research investigated some of the biomechanical and behavioral strategies used for stable unsteady locomotion. First, I studied the behavioral level control of human sagittal plane running. I tested whether humans could control running using strategies consistent with simple and independent control laws that have been successfully used to control monopod robots. I found that humans use strategies that are consistent with the distributed feedback control strategies used by bouncing robots. Humans changed leg force rather than stance duration to control center of mass (COM) height. Humans adjusted foot placement relative to a "neutral point" to change running speed increment between consecutive flight phases, i.e. a "pogo-stick" rather than a "unicycle" strategy was adopted to change running speed. Body pitch angle was correlated by hip moments if a proportional-derivative relationship with time lags corresponding to pre-programmed reaction (87 ± 19 ms) was assumed. To better understand the mechanisms of performing successful maneuvers, I studied the functions of joints in the lower extremities to control COM speed and height. I found that during stance, the hip functioned as a power generator to change speed. The ankle switched between roles as a damper and torsional spring to contributing both to speed and elevation changes. The knee facilitated both speed and elevation control by absorbing mechanical energy, although its contribution was less than hip or ankle. Finally, I studied human turning in the horizontal plane. I used a morphological perturbation (increased body rotational inertia) to elicit compensational strategies used to control sidestep cutting turns. Humans use changes to initial body angular speed and body pre-rotation to prevent changes in braking forces.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

155748-Thumbnail Image.png

Measuring Glide Reflection Symmetry in Human Movements

Description

Many studies on human walking pattern assume that adult gait is characterized by bilateral symmetrical behavior. It is well understood that maintaining symmetry in walking patterns increases energetic eciency. We

Many studies on human walking pattern assume that adult gait is characterized by bilateral symmetrical behavior. It is well understood that maintaining symmetry in walking patterns increases energetic eciency. We present a framework to provide a quantitative assessment of human walking patterns, especially assessments related to symmetric and asymmetric gait patterns purely based on glide reflection. A Gliding symmetry score is calculated from the data obtained from Motion Capture(MoCap) system. Six primary joints (Shoulder, Elbow, Palm, Hip, Knee, Foot) are considered for this study. Two dierent abnormalities were chosen and studied carefully. All the two gaits were mimicked in controlled environment. The framework proposed clearly showed that it could distinguish the abnormal gaits from the ordinary walking patterns. This framework can be widely used by the doctors and physical therapists for kinematics analysis, bio-mechanics, motion capture research, sports medicine and physical therapy, including human gait analysis and injury rehabilitation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

154833-Thumbnail Image.png

Basins of attraction in human balance

Description

According to the CDC in 2010, there were 2.8 million emergency room visits costing $7.9 billion dollars for treatment of nonfatal falling injuries in emergency departments across the country. Falls

According to the CDC in 2010, there were 2.8 million emergency room visits costing $7.9 billion dollars for treatment of nonfatal falling injuries in emergency departments across the country. Falls are a recognized risk factor for unintentional injuries among older adults, accounting for a large proportion of fractures, emergency department visits, and urgent hospitalizations. The objective of this research was to identify and learn more about what factors affect balance using analysis techniques from nonlinear dynamics. Human balance and gait research traditionally uses linear or qualitative tests to assess and describe human motion; however, it is growing more apparent that human motion is neither a simple nor a linear task. In the 1990s Collins, first started applying stochastic processes to analyze human postural control system. Recently, Zakynthinaki et al. modeled human balance using the idea that humans will remain erect when perturbed until some boundary, or physical limit, is passed. This boundary is similar to the notion of basins of attraction in nonlinear dynamics and is referred to as the basin of stability. Human balance data was collected using dual force plates and Vicon marker position data for leans using only ankle movements and leans that were unrestricted. With this dataset, Zakynthinaki’s work was extended by comparing different algorithms used to create the critical curve (basin of stability boundary) that encloses the experimental data points as well as comparing the differences between the two leaning conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

Learning joint actions in human-human interactions

Description

Understanding human-human interactions during the performance of joint motor tasks is critical for developing rehabilitation robots that could aid therapists in providing effective treatments for motor problems. However, there is

Understanding human-human interactions during the performance of joint motor tasks is critical for developing rehabilitation robots that could aid therapists in providing effective treatments for motor problems. However, there is a lack of understanding of strategies (cooperative or competitive) adopted by humans when interacting with other individuals. Previous studies have investigated the cues (auditory, visual and haptic) that support these interactions but understanding how these unconscious interactions happen even without those cues is yet to be explained. To address this issue, in this study, a paradigm that tests the parallel efforts of pairs of individuals (dyads) to complete a jointly performed virtual reaching task, without any auditory or visual information exchange was employed. Motion was tracked with a NDI OptoTrak 3D motion tracking system that captured each subject’s movement kinematics, through which we could measure the level of synchronization between two subjects in space and time. For the spatial analyses, the movement amplitudes and direction errors at peak velocities and at endpoints were analyzed. Significant differences in the movement amplitudes were found for subjects in 4 out of 6 dyads which were expected due to the lack of feedback between the subjects. Interestingly, subjects in this study also planned their movements in different directions in order to counteract the visuomotor rotation offered in the test blocks, which suggests the difference in strategies for the subjects in each dyad. Also, the level of de-adaptation in the control blocks in which no visuomotor rotation was offered to the subjects was measured. To further validate the results obtained through spatial analyses, a temporal analyses was done in which the movement times for the two subjects were compared. With the help of these results, numerous interaction scenarios that are possible in the human joint actions in without feedback were analyzed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016