Matching Items (3)
- All Subjects: Audio amplifiers--Design and construction.
- All Subjects: Ripples
- Genre: Masters Thesis
- Creators: Garrity, Douglas
- Creators: Chakraborty, Bijeta
- Creators: Peterson, Cory
State of art modern System-On-Chip architectures often require very low noise supplies without overhead on high efficiencies. Low noise supplies are especially important in noise sensitive analog blocks such as high precision Analog-to-Digital Converters, Phase Locked Loops etc., and analog signal processing blocks. Switching regulators, while providing high efficiency power conversion suffer from inherent ripple on their output. A typical solution for high efficiency low noise supply is to cascade switching regulators with Low Dropout linear regulators (LDO) which generate inherently quiet supplies. The switching frequencies of switching regulators keep scaling to higher values in order to reduce the sizes of the passive inductor and capacitors at the output of switching regulators. This poses a challenge for existing solutions of switching regulators followed by LDO since the Power Supply Rejection (PSR) of LDOs are band-limited. In order to achieve high PSR over a wideband, the penalty would be to increase the quiescent power consumed to increase the bandwidth of the LDO and increase in solution area of the LDO. Hence, an alternative to the existing approach is required which improves the ripple cancellation at the output of switching regulator while overcoming the deficiencies of the LDO.
This research focuses on developing an innovative technique to cancel the ripple at the output of switching regulator which is scalable across a wide range of switching frequencies. The proposed technique consists of a primary ripple canceller and an auxiliary ripple canceller, both of which facilitate in the generation of a quiet supply and help to attenuate the ripple at the output of buck converter by over 22dB. These techniques can be applied to any DC-DC converter and are scalable across frequency, load current, output voltage as compared to LDO without significant overhead on efficiency or area. The proposed technique also presents a fully integrated solution without the need of additional off-chip components which, considering the push for full-integration of Power Management Integrated Circuits, is a big advantage over using LDOs.
Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The high efficiency of Class D amplifiers (CDAs) makes them particularly attractive for portable applications. The Digital class D amplifier is an interesting solution to increase the efficiency of embedded systems. However, this solution is not good enough in terms of PWM stage linearity and power supply rejection. An efficient control is needed to correct the error sources in order to get a high fidelity sound quality in the whole audio range of frequencies. A fundamental analysis on various error sources due to non idealities in the power stage have been discussed here with key focus on Power supply perturbations driving the Power stage of a Class D Audio Amplifier. Two types of closed loop Digital Class D architecture for PSRR improvement have been proposed and modeled. Double sided uniform sampling modulation has been used. One of the architecture uses feedback around the power stage and the second architecture uses feedback into digital domain. Simulation & experimental results confirm that the closed loop PSRR & PS-IMD improve by around 30-40 dB and 25 dB respectively.
Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to expect. Class D amplifiers deliver on the goal of increased efficiency, but at the cost of distortion. Class AB amplifiers have low efficiency, but high linearity. By modulating the supply voltage of a Class AB amplifier to make a Class H amplifier, the efficiency can increase while still maintaining the Class AB level of linearity. A 92dB Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) Class AB amplifier and a Class H amplifier were designed in a 0.24um process for portable audio applications. Using a multiphase buck converter increased the efficiency of the Class H amplifier while still maintaining a fast response time to respond to audio frequencies. The Class H amplifier had an efficiency above the Class AB amplifier by 5-7% from 5-30mW of output power without affecting the total harmonic distortion (THD) at the design specifications. The Class H amplifier design met all design specifications and showed performance comparable to the designed Class AB amplifier across 1kHz-20kHz and 0.01mW-30mW. The Class H design was able to output 30mW into 16Ohms without any increase in THD. This design shows that Class H amplifiers merit more research into their potential for increasing efficiency of audio amplifiers and that even simple designs can give significant increases in efficiency without compromising linearity.