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Modeling & analysis of a closed loop class D audio amplifier for PSR improvement

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Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The high efficiency of Class D amplifiers (CDAs) makes them particularly attractive for portable applications. The Digital class D amplifier is an interesting solution to increase the efficiency of embedded systems. However, this solution is not good enough in terms of PWM stage linearity and power supply rejection. An efficient control is needed to correct the error sources in order to get a high fidelity sound quality in the whole audio range of frequencies. A fundamental analysis on various error sources due to non idealities in the power stage have been discussed here with key focus on Power supply perturbations driving the Power stage of a Class D Audio Amplifier. Two types of closed loop Digital Class D architecture for PSRR improvement have been proposed and modeled. Double sided uniform sampling modulation has been used. One of the architecture uses feedback around the power stage and the second architecture uses feedback into digital domain. Simulation & experimental results confirm that the closed loop PSRR & PS-IMD improve by around 30-40 dB and 25 dB respectively.

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Date Created
2012

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Design and analysis of a dual supply class H audio amplifier

Description

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to expect. Class D amplifiers deliver on the goal of increased efficiency, but at the cost of distortion. Class AB amplifiers have low efficiency, but high linearity. By modulating the supply voltage of a Class AB amplifier to make a Class H amplifier, the efficiency can increase while still maintaining the Class AB level of linearity. A 92dB Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) Class AB amplifier and a Class H amplifier were designed in a 0.24um process for portable audio applications. Using a multiphase buck converter increased the efficiency of the Class H amplifier while still maintaining a fast response time to respond to audio frequencies. The Class H amplifier had an efficiency above the Class AB amplifier by 5-7% from 5-30mW of output power without affecting the total harmonic distortion (THD) at the design specifications. The Class H amplifier design met all design specifications and showed performance comparable to the designed Class AB amplifier across 1kHz-20kHz and 0.01mW-30mW. The Class H design was able to output 30mW into 16Ohms without any increase in THD. This design shows that Class H amplifiers merit more research into their potential for increasing efficiency of audio amplifiers and that even simple designs can give significant increases in efficiency without compromising linearity.

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Date Created
2013

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Small Form Factor Hybrid CMOS/GaN Buck Converters for 10W Point of Load Applications

Description

Point of Load (PoL) converters are important components to the power distribution system in computer power supplies as well as automotive, space, nuclear, and medical electronics. These converters often require high output current capability, low form factor, and high conversion

Point of Load (PoL) converters are important components to the power distribution system in computer power supplies as well as automotive, space, nuclear, and medical electronics. These converters often require high output current capability, low form factor, and high conversion ratios (step-down) without sacrificing converter efficiency. This work presents hybrid silicon/gallium nitride (CMOS/GaN) power converter architectures as a solution for high-current, small form-factor PoL converters. The presented topologies use discrete GaN power devices and CMOS integrated drivers and controller loop. The presented power converters operate in the tens of MHz range to reduce the form factor by reducing the size of the off-chip passive inductor and capacitor. Higher conversion ratio is achieved through a fast control loop and the use of GaN power devices that exhibit low parasitic gate capacitance and minimize pulse swallowing.

This work compares three discrete buck power converter architectures: single-stage, multi-phase with 2 phases, and stacked-interleaved, using components-off-the-shelf (COTS). Each of the implemented power converters achieves over 80% peak efficiency with switching speeds up-to 10MHz for high conversion ratio from 24V input to 5V output and maximum load current of 10A. The performance of the three architectures is compared in open loop and closed loop configurations with respect to efficiency, output voltage ripple, and power stage form factor.

Additionally, this work presents an integrated CMOS gate driver solution in CMOS 0.35um technology. The CMOS integrated circuit (IC) includes the gate driver and the closed loop controller for directly driving a single-stage GaN architecture. The designed IC efficiently drives the GaN devices up to 20MHz switching speeds. The presented controller technique uses voltage mode control with an innovative cascode driver architecture to allow a 3.3V CMOS devices to effectively drive GaN devices that require 5V gate signal swing. Furthermore, the designed power converter is expected to operate under 400MRad of total dose, thus enabling its use in high-radiation environments for the large hadron collider at CERN and nuclear facilities.

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Date Created
2018