Matching Items (6)

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Metasurface-Based Techniques for Broadband Radar Cross-Section Reduction of Complex Structures

Description

Within the past two decades, metasurfaces, with their unique ability to tailor the wavefront, have attracted scientific attention. Along with many other research areas, RADAR cross-section (RCS)-reduction techniques have also

Within the past two decades, metasurfaces, with their unique ability to tailor the wavefront, have attracted scientific attention. Along with many other research areas, RADAR cross-section (RCS)-reduction techniques have also benefited from metasurface technology.

In this dissertation, a novel technique to synthesize the RCS-reduction metasurfaces is presented. This technique unifies the two most widely studied and two well-established modern RCS-reduction methods: checkerboard RCS-reduction andgradient-index RCS-reduction. It also overcomes the limitations associated with these RCS-reduction methods. It synthesizes the RCS-reduction metasurfaces, which can be juxtaposed with almost any existing metasurface, to reduce its RCS. The proposed technique is fundamentally based on scattering cancellation. Finally, an example of the RCS-reduction metasurface has been synthesized and introduced to reduce the RCS of an existing high-gain metasurface ground plane.

After that, various ways of obtaining ultrabroadband RCS-reduction using the same technique are proposed, which overcome the fundamental limitation of the conventional checkerboard metasurfaces, where the reflection phase difference of (180+-37) degrees is required to achieve 10-dB RCS reduction. First, the guideline on how to select Artificial Magnetic Conductors (AMCs) is explained with an example of a blended checkerboard architecture where a 10-dB RCS reduction is observed over 83% of the bandwidth. Further, by modifying the architecture of the blended checkerboard metasurface, the 10-dB RCS reduction bandwidth increased to 91% fractional bandwidth. All the proposed architectures are validated using measured data for fabricated prototypes. Critical steps for designing the ultrabroadband RCS reduction checkerboard surface are summarized.

Finally, a broadband technique to reduce the RCS of complex targets is presented. By using the proposed technique, the problem of reducing the RCS contribution from such multiple-bounces simplifies to identifying and implementing a set of orthogonal functions. Robust guidelines for avoiding grating lobes are provided using array theory. The 90 degree dihedral corner is used to verify the proposed technique. Measurements are reported for a fabricated prototype, where a 70% RCS-reduction bandwidth is observed. To generalize the method, a 45 degree dihedral corner, with a quadruple-bounce mechanism, is considered. Generalized guidelines are summarized and applied to reduce the RCS of complex targets using the proposed method.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Opto-thermal Energy Transport with Selective Metamaterials and Solar Thermal Characterization of Selective Metafilm Absorbers

Description

The objective of this dissertation is to study the use of metamaterials as narrow-band and broadband selective absorbers for opto-thermal and solar thermal energy conversion. Narrow-band selective absorbers have applications

The objective of this dissertation is to study the use of metamaterials as narrow-band and broadband selective absorbers for opto-thermal and solar thermal energy conversion. Narrow-band selective absorbers have applications such as plasmonic sensing and cancer treatment, while one of the main applications of selective metamaterials with broadband absorption is efficiently converting solar energy into heat as solar absorbers.

This dissertation first discusses the use of gold nanowires as narrow-band selective metamaterial absorbers. An investigation into plasmonic localized heating indicated that film-coupled gold nanoparticles exhibit tunable selective absorption based on the size of the nanoparticles. By using anodized aluminum oxide templates, aluminum nanodisc narrow-band absorbers were fabricated. A metrology instrument to measure the reflectance and transmittance of micro-scale samples was also developed and used to measure the reflectance of the aluminum nanodisc absorbers (220 µm diameter area). Tuning of the resonance wavelengths of these absorbers can be achieved through changing their geometry. Broadband absorption can be achieved by using a combination of geometries for these metamaterials which would facilitate their use as solar absorbers.

Recently, solar energy harvesting has become a topic of considerable research investigation due to it being an environmentally conscious alternative to fossil fuels. The next section discusses the steady-state temperature measurement of a lab-scale multilayer solar absorber, named metafilm. A lab-scale experimental setup is developed to characterize the solar thermal performance of selective solar absorbers. Under a concentration factor of 20.3 suns, a steady-state temperature of ~500 degrees Celsius was achieved for the metafilm compared to 375 degrees Celsius for a commercial black absorber under the same conditions. Thermal durability testing showed that the metafilm could withstand up to 700 degrees Celsius in vacuum conditions and up to 400 degrees Celsius in atmospheric conditions with little degradation of its optical and radiative properties. Moreover, cost analysis of the metafilm found it to cost significantly less ($2.22 per square meter) than commercial solar coatings ($5.41-100 per square meter).

Finally, this dissertation concludes with recommendations for further studies like using these selective metamaterials and metafilms as absorbers and emitters and using the aluminum nanodiscs on glass as selective filters for photovoltaic cells to enhance solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Nano-engineering metamaterials and metafilms for high-efficiency solar energy harvesting and conversion

Description

The energy crisis in the past decades has greatly boosted the search for alternatives to traditional fossil foils, and solar energy stands out as an important candidate due to its

The energy crisis in the past decades has greatly boosted the search for alternatives to traditional fossil foils, and solar energy stands out as an important candidate due to its cleanness and abundance. However, the relatively low conversion efficiency and energy density strongly hinder the utilization of solar energy in wider applications. This thesis focuses on employing metamaterials and metafilms to enhance the conversion efficiency of solar thermal, solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) and photovoltaic systems.

A selective metamaterial solar absorber is designed in this thesis to maximize the absorbed solar energy and minimize heat dissipation through thermal radiation. The theoretically designed metamaterial solar absorber exhibits absorptance higher than 95% in the solar spectrum but shows emittance less than 4% in the IR regime. This metamaterial solar absorber is further experimentally fabricated and optically characterized. Moreover, a metafilm selective absorber with stability up to 600oC is introduced, which exhibits solar absorptance higher than 90% and IR emittance less than 10%.

Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion enhanced by metamaterial absorbers and emitters is theoretically investigated in this thesis. The STPV system employing selective metamaterial absorber and emitter is investigated in this work, showing its conversion efficiency between 8% and 10% with concentration factor varying between 20 and 200. This conversion efficiency is remarkably enhanced compared with the conversion efficiency for STPV system employing black surfaces (<2.5%).

Moreover, plasmonic light trapping in ultra-thin solar cells employing concave grating nanostructures is discussed in this thesis. The plasmonic light trapping inside an ultrathin GaAs layer in the film-coupled metamaterial structure is numerically demonstrated. By exciting plasmonic resonances inside this structure, the short-circuit current density for the film-coupled metamaterial solar cell is three times the short-circuit current for a free-standing GaAs layer.

The dissertation is concluded by discussing about the future work on selective solar thermal absorbers, STPV/TPV systems and light trapping structures. Possibilities to design and fabricate solar thermal absorber with better thermal stability will be discussed, the experimental work of TPV system will be conducted, and the light trapping in organic and perovskite solar cells will be looked into.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Effect of chaos and complex wave pattern formation in multiple physical systems: relativistic quantum tunneling, optical meta-materials, and co-evolutionary game theory

Description

What can classical chaos do to quantum systems is a fundamental issue highly relevant to a number of branches in physics. The field of quantum chaos has been active for

What can classical chaos do to quantum systems is a fundamental issue highly relevant to a number of branches in physics. The field of quantum chaos has been active for three decades, where the focus was on non-relativistic quantumsystems described by the Schr¨odinger equation. By developing an efficient method to solve the Dirac equation in the setting where relativistic particles can tunnel between two symmetric cavities through a potential barrier, chaotic cavities are found to suppress the spread in the tunneling rate. Tunneling rate for any given energy assumes a wide range that increases with the energy for integrable classical dynamics. However, for chaotic underlying dynamics, the spread is greatly reduced. A remarkable feature, which is a consequence of Klein tunneling, arise only in relativistc quantum systems that substantial tunneling exists even for particle energy approaching zero. Similar results are found in graphene tunneling devices, implying high relevance of relativistic quantum chaos to the development of such devices. Wave propagation through random media occurs in many physical systems, where interesting phenomena such as branched, fracal-like wave patterns can arise. The generic origin of these wave structures is currently a matter of active debate. It is of fundamental interest to develop a minimal, paradigmaticmodel that can generate robust branched wave structures. In so doing, a general observation in all situations where branched structures emerge is non-Gaussian statistics of wave intensity with an algebraic tail in the probability density function. Thus, a universal algebraic wave-intensity distribution becomes the criterion for the validity of any minimal model of branched wave patterns. Coexistence of competing species in spatially extended ecosystems is key to biodiversity in nature. Understanding the dynamical mechanisms of coexistence is a fundamental problem of continuous interest not only in evolutionary biology but also in nonlinear science. A continuous model is proposed for cyclically competing species and the effect of the interplay between the interaction range and mobility on coexistence is investigated. A transition from coexistence to extinction is uncovered with a non-monotonic behavior in the coexistence probability and switches between spiral and plane-wave patterns arise. Strong mobility can either promote or hamper coexistence, while absent in lattice-based models, can be explained in terms of nonlinear partial differential equations.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Metamaterial enhanced near-field thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

Description

It is well known that radiative heat transfer rate can exceed that between two blackbodies by several orders of magnitude due to the coupling of evanescent waves. One promising application

It is well known that radiative heat transfer rate can exceed that between two blackbodies by several orders of magnitude due to the coupling of evanescent waves. One promising application of near-field thermal radiation is thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices, which convert thermal energy to electricity. Recently, different types of metamaterials with excitations of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs)/surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs), magnetic polaritons (MP), and hyperbolic modes (HM), have been studied to further improve near-field radiative heat flux and conversion efficiency. On the other hand, near-field experimental demonstration between planar surfaces has been limited due to the extreme challenge in the vacuum gap control as well as the parallelism.

The main objective of this work is to experimentally study the near-field radiative transfer and the excitation of resonance modes by designing nanostructured thin films separated by nanometer vacuum gaps. In particular, the near-field radiative heat transfer between two parallel plates of intrinsic silicon wafers coated with a thin film of aluminum nanostructure is investigated. In addition, theoretical studies about the effects of different physical mechanisms such as SPhP/SPP, MPs, and HM on near-field radiative transfer in various nanostructured metamaterials are conducted particularly for near-field TPV applications. Numerical simulations are performed by using multilayer transfer matrix method, rigorous coupled wave analysis, and finite difference time domain techniques incorporated with fluctuational electrodynamics. The understanding gained here will undoubtedly benefit the spectral control of near-field thermal radiation for energy-harvesting applications like thermophotovoltaic energy conversion and radiation-based thermal management.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging

Description

To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality

To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, consisting of a remotely interrogating array of dipoles, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002.

In the present work a remotely interrogating slot antenna inside a 60nm silver slab is designed which increases the signal to noise ratio of the original system. The antenna is tuned to resonance at 600nm range by taking advantage of the plasmon resonance properties of the metal’s negative permittivity and judicious shaping of the slot element. Full-physics simulations show the capability of detecting an 8nm particle using red light illumination. The sensitivity to the λ/78 particle is attained by detecting the change induced on the antenna’s far field signature by the proximate particle, a change that is 15dB greater than the scattering signature of the particle by itself.

To verify the capabilities of this technology in a readily accessible experimental environment, a radiofrequency scale model is designed using a meta-material to mimic the optical properties of silver in the 2GHz to 5GHz range. Various approaches to the replication of the metal’s behavior are explored in a trade-off between fidelity to the metal’s natural plasmon response, desired bandwidth of the demonstration, and

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manufacturability of the meta-material. The simulation and experimental results successfully verify the capability of the proposed near-field sensor in sub-wavelength detection and imaging not only as a proof of concept for optical frequencies but also as a potential imaging device for radio frequencies.

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Date Created
  • 2016