Background: Acetic acid in vinegar has demonstrated antiglycemic effects in previous studies; however, the mechanism is unknown.
Objective: To determine whether acetic acid dissociates in the addition of sodium chloride and describe a flavorful vinaigrette that maintains the functional properties of acetic acid.
Design: Phase I - Ten healthy subjects (23-40 years) taste tested five homemade vinaigrette and five commercial dressings. Perceived saltiness, sweetness, tartness, and overall tasted were scored using a modified labeled affective magnitude scale. Each dressing was tested three times for pH with a calibrated meter. Phase II – Randomized crossover trial testing six dressings against a control dressing two groups of nine healthy adult subjects (18-52 years). Height, weight and calculated body mass index (BMI) were performed at baseline. Subjects participated in four test sessions each, at least seven days apart. After a 10-hour fast, participants consumed 38g of the test drink, followed by a bagel meal. Capillary blood glucose was obtained at fasting, and every 30 minutes over a 2-hour period the test meal.
Results: Dressing pH reduced as sodium content increased. In the intervention trials, no significant differences were observed between groups (p >0.05). The greatest reduction in postprandial glycemia (~21%) was observed in the dressing containing 200 mg of sodium. Effect size was large in both group 1 (η2=0.161) and group 2 (η2=0.577).
Conclusion: The inclusion of sodium into acetic acid may impair its ability to attenuate blood glucose after a meal.