Matching Items (4)

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AFM study of gene silencing by DNA methylation and its interactions involving chromatin and methyl CpG binding proteins

Description

CpG methylation is an essential requirement for the normal development of mammals, but aberrant changes in the methylation can lead to tumor progression and cancer. An in-depth understanding of this phenomenon can provide insights into the mechanism of gene repression.

CpG methylation is an essential requirement for the normal development of mammals, but aberrant changes in the methylation can lead to tumor progression and cancer. An in-depth understanding of this phenomenon can provide insights into the mechanism of gene repression. We present a study comparing methylated DNA and normal DNA wrt its persistence length and contour length. Although, previous experiments and studies show no difference between the physical properties of the two, the data collected and interpreted here gives a different picture to the methylation phenomena and its effect on gene silencing. The study was extended to the artificially reconstituted chromatin and its interactions with the methyl CpG binding proteins were also probed.

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Created

Date Created
2012

Investigation of DNA methylation in obesity and its underlying insulin resistance

Description

Obesity and its underlying insulin resistance are caused by environmental and genetic factors. DNA methylation provides a mechanism by which environmental factors can regulate transcriptional activity. The overall goal of the work herein was to (1) identify alterations in DNA

Obesity and its underlying insulin resistance are caused by environmental and genetic factors. DNA methylation provides a mechanism by which environmental factors can regulate transcriptional activity. The overall goal of the work herein was to (1) identify alterations in DNA methylation in human skeletal muscle with obesity and its underlying insulin resistance, (2) to determine if these changes in methylation can be altered through weight-loss induced by bariatric surgery, and (3) to identify DNA methylation biomarkers in whole blood that can be used as a surrogate for skeletal muscle.

Assessment of DNA methylation was performed on human skeletal muscle and blood using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) for high-throughput identification and pyrosequencing for site-specific confirmation. Sorbin and SH3 homology domain 3 (SORBS3) was identified in skeletal muscle to be increased in methylation (+5.0 to +24.4 %) in the promoter and 5’untranslated region (UTR) in the obese participants (n= 10) compared to lean (n=12), and this finding corresponded with a decrease in gene expression (fold change: -1.9, P=0.0001). Furthermore, SORBS3 was demonstrated in a separate cohort of morbidly obese participants (n=7) undergoing weight-loss induced by surgery, to decrease in methylation (-5.6 to -24.2%) and increase in gene expression (fold change: +1.7; P=0.05) post-surgery. Moreover, SORBS3 promoter methylation was demonstrated in vitro to inhibit transcriptional activity (P=0.000003). The methylation and transcriptional changes for SORBS3 were significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with obesity measures and fasting insulin levels. SORBS3 was not identified in the blood methylation analysis of lean (n=10) and obese (n=10) participants suggesting that it is a muscle specific marker. However, solute carrier family 19 member 1 (SLC19A1) was identified in blood and skeletal muscle to have decreased 5’UTR methylation in obese participants, and this was significantly (P≤0.05) predicted by insulin sensitivity.

These findings suggest SLC19A1 as a potential blood-based biomarker for obese, insulin resistant states. The collective findings of SORBS3 DNA methylation and gene expression present an exciting novel target in skeletal muscle for further understanding obesity and its underlying insulin resistance. Moreover, the dynamic changes to SORBS3 in response to metabolic improvements and weight-loss induced by surgery.

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Date Created
2017

Primate skeletal epigenetics: evolutionary implications of DNA methylation patterns in the skeletal tissues of human and nonhuman primates

Description

Within the primate lineage, skeletal traits that contribute to inter-specific anatomical variation and enable varied niche occupations and forms of locomotion are often described as the result of environmental adaptations. However, skeletal phenotypes are more accurately defined as complex traits,

Within the primate lineage, skeletal traits that contribute to inter-specific anatomical variation and enable varied niche occupations and forms of locomotion are often described as the result of environmental adaptations. However, skeletal phenotypes are more accurately defined as complex traits, and environmental, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation which regulates gene expression, all contribute to these phenotypes. Nevertheless, skeletal complexity in relation to epigenetic variation has not been assessed across the primate order. In order to gain a complete understanding of the evolution of skeletal phenotypes across primates, it is necessary to study skeletal epigenetics in primates. This study attempts to fill this gap by identifying intra- and inter-specific variation in primate skeletal tissue methylation in order to test whether specific features of skeletal form are related to specific variations in methylation. Specifically, methylation arrays and gene-specific methylation sequencing are used to identify DNA methylation patterns in femoral trabecular bone and cartilage of several nonhuman primate species. Samples include baboons (Papio spp.), macaques (Macaca mulatta), vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), and the efficiencies of these methods are validated in each taxon. Within one nonhuman primate species (baboons), intra-specific variations in methylation patterns are identified across a range of comparative levels, including skeletal tissue differences (bone vs. cartilage), age cohort differences (adults vs. juveniles), and skeletal disease state differences (osteoarthritic vs. healthy), and some of the identified patterns are evolutionarily conserved with those known in humans. Additionally, in all nonhuman primate species, intra-specific methylation variation in association with nonpathological femur morphologies is assessed. Lastly, inter-specific changes in methylation are evaluated among all nonhuman primate taxa and used to provide a phylogenetic framework for methylation changes previously identified in the hominin lineage. Overall, findings from this work reveal how skeletal DNA methylation patterns vary within and among primate species and relate to skeletal phenotypes, and together they inform our understanding of epigenetic regulation and complex skeletal trait evolution in primates.

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Created

Date Created
2017

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DNA methylation and gene expression profiling for Parkinson's biomarker discovery

Description

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, diagnosed late in

the disease by a series of motor deficits that manifest over years or decades. It is characterized by degeneration of mid-brain dopaminergic neurons with a high prevalence of dementia associated

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, diagnosed late in

the disease by a series of motor deficits that manifest over years or decades. It is characterized by degeneration of mid-brain dopaminergic neurons with a high prevalence of dementia associated with the spread of pathology to cortical regions. Patients exhibiting symptoms have already undergone significant neuronal loss without chance for recovery. Analysis of disease specific changes in gene expression directly from human patients can uncover invaluable clues about a still unknown etiology, the potential of which grows exponentially as additional gene regulatory measures are questioned. Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as important components of neurodegeneration, including PD; the extent to which methylation changes correlate with disease progression has not yet been reported. This collection of work aims to define multiple layers of PD that will work toward developing biomarkers that not only could improve diagnostic accuracy, but also push the boundaries of the disease detection timeline. I examined changes in gene expression, alternative splicing of those gene products, and the regulatory mechanism of DNA methylation in the Parkinson’s disease system, as well as the pathologically related Alzheimer’s disease (AD). I first used RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to evaluate differential gene expression and alternative splicing in the posterior cingulate cortex of patients with PD and PD with dementia (PDD). Next, I performed a longitudinal genome-wide methylation study surveying ~850K CpG methylation sites in whole blood from 189 PD patients and 191 control individuals obtained at both a baseline and at a follow-up visit after 2 years. I also considered how symptom management medications could affect the regulatory mechanism of DNA methylation. In the last chapter of this work, I intersected RNAseq and DNA methylation array datasets from whole blood patient samples for integrated differential analyses of both PD and AD. Changes in gene expression and DNA methylation reveal clear patterns of pathway dysregulation that can be seen across brain and blood, from one study to the next. I present a thorough survey of molecular changes occurring within the idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patient and propose candidate targets for potential molecular biomarkers.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019