Matching Items (11)

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Interface electronic state characterization of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectrics on GaN

Description

In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) dielectrics on GaN are investigated with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). Three interrelated issues are discussed in this study: (1) PEALD dielectric

In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) dielectrics on GaN are investigated with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). Three interrelated issues are discussed in this study: (1) PEALD dielectric growth process optimization, (2) interface electronic structure of comparative PEALD dielectrics on GaN, and (3) interface electronic structure of PEALD dielectrics on Ga- and N-face GaN. The first study involved an in-depth case study of PEALD Al2O3 growth using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide, with a special focus on oxygen plasma effects. Saturated and self-limiting growth of Al2O3 films were obtained with an enhanced growth rate within the PEALD temperature window (25-220 ºC). The properties of Al2O3 deposited at various temperatures were characterized to better understand the relation between the growth parameters and film properties. In the second study, the interface electronic structures of PEALD dielectrics on Ga-face GaN films were measured. Five promising dielectrics (Al2O3, HfO2, SiO2, La2O3, and ZnO) with a range of band gap energies were chosen. Prior to dielectric growth, a combined wet chemical and in-situ H2/N2 plasma clean process was employed to remove the carbon contamination and prepare the surface for dielectric deposition. The surface band bending and band offsets were measured by XPS and UPS for dielectrics on GaN. The trends of the experimental band offsets on GaN were related to the dielectric band gap energies. In addition, the experimental band offsets were near the calculated values based on the charge neutrality level model. The third study focused on the effect of the polarization bound charge of the Ga- and N-face GaN on interface electronic structures. A surface pretreatment process consisting of a NH4OH wet chemical and an in-situ NH3 plasma treatment was applied to remove carbon contamination, retain monolayer oxygen coverage, and potentially passivate N-vacancy related defects. The surface band bending and polarization charge compensation of Ga- and N-face GaN were investigated. The surface band bending and band offsets were determined for Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 on Ga- and N-face GaN. Different dielectric thicknesses and post deposition processing were investigated to understand process related defect formation and/or reduction.

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Date Created
2014

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Electronic states of high-k oxides in gate stack structures

Description

In this dissertation, in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy have been employed to study the interface chemistry and electronic structure of potential high-k gate stack materials. In these gate stack materials, HfO2 and La2O3 are selected as high-k dielectrics, VO2

In this dissertation, in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy have been employed to study the interface chemistry and electronic structure of potential high-k gate stack materials. In these gate stack materials, HfO2 and La2O3 are selected as high-k dielectrics, VO2 and ZnO serve as potential channel layer materials. The gate stack structures have been prepared using a reactive electron beam system and a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition system. Three interrelated issues represent the central themes of the research: 1) the interface band alignment, 2) candidate high-k materials, and 3) band bending, internal electric fields, and charge transfer. 1) The most highlighted issue is the band alignment of specific high-k structures. Band alignment relationships were deduced by analysis of XPS and UPS spectra for three different structures: a) HfO2/VO2/SiO2/Si, b) HfO2-La2O3/ZnO/SiO2/Si, and c) HfO2/VO2/ HfO2/SiO2/Si. The valence band offset of HfO2/VO2, ZnO/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2 are determined to be 3.4 ± 0.1, 1.5 ± 0.1, and 0.7 ± 0.1 eV. The valence band offset between HfO2-La2O3 and ZnO was almost negligible. Two band alignment models, the electron affinity model and the charge neutrality level model, are discussed. The results show the charge neutrality model is preferred to describe these structures. 2) High-k candidate materials were studied through comparison of pure Hf oxide, pure La oxide, and alloyed Hf-La oxide films. An issue with the application of pure HfO2 is crystallization which may increase the leakage current in gate stack structures. An issue with the application of pure La2O3 is the presence of carbon contamination in the film. Our study shows that the alloyed Hf-La oxide films exhibit an amorphous structure along with reduced carbon contamination. 3) Band bending and internal electric fields in the gate stack structure were observed by XPS and UPS and indicate the charge transfer during the growth and process. The oxygen plasma may induce excess oxygen species with negative charges, which could be removed by He plasma treatment. The final HfO2 capping layer deposition may reduce the internal potential inside the structures. The band structure was approaching to a flat band condition.

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Date Created
2012

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Growth and characterization of thin films of high performance microwave dielectrics

Description

Microwave dielectrics are widely used to make resonators and filters in telecommunication systems. The production of thin films with high dielectric constant and low loss could potentially enable a marked reduction in the size of devices and systems. However, studies

Microwave dielectrics are widely used to make resonators and filters in telecommunication systems. The production of thin films with high dielectric constant and low loss could potentially enable a marked reduction in the size of devices and systems. However, studies of these materials in thin film form are very sparse. In this research, experiments were carried out on practical high-performance dielectrics including ZrTiO4-ZnNb2O6 (ZTZN) and Ba(Co,Zn)1/3Nb2/3O3 (BCZN) with high dielectric constant and low loss tangent. Thin films were deposited by laser ablation on various substrates, with a systematical study of growth conditions like substrate temperature, oxygen pressure and annealing to optimize the film quality, and the compositional, microstructural, optical and electric properties were characterized. The deposited ZTZN films were randomly oriented polycrystalline on Si substrate and textured on MgO substrate with a tetragonal lattice change at elevated temperature. The BCZN films deposited on MgO substrate showed superior film quality relative to that on other substrates, which grow epitaxially with an orientation of (001) // MgO (001) and (100) // MgO (100) when substrate temperature was above 500 oC. In-situ annealing at growth temperature in 200 mTorr oxygen pressure was found to enhance the quality of the films, reducing the peak width of the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) rocking curve to 0.53o and the χmin of channeling Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) to 8.8% when grown at 800oC. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to study the topography and found a monotonic decrease in the surface roughness when the growth temperature increased. Optical absorption and transmission measurements were used to determine the energy bandgap and the refractive index respectively. A low-frequency dielectric constant of 34 was measured using a planar interdigital measurement structure. The resistivity of the film is ~3×1010 ohm·cm at room temperature and has an activation energy of thermal activated current of 0.66 eV.

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Date Created
2013

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Mechanisms of microwave loss tangent in high performance dielectric materials

Description

The mechanism of loss in high performance microwave dielectrics with complex perovskite structure, including Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3, Ba(Cd1/3Ta2/3)O3, ZrTiO4-ZnNb2O6, Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, and BaTi4O9-BaZn2Ti4O11, has been investigated. We studied materials synthesized in our own lab and from commercial vendors. Then the measured loss tangent

The mechanism of loss in high performance microwave dielectrics with complex perovskite structure, including Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3, Ba(Cd1/3Ta2/3)O3, ZrTiO4-ZnNb2O6, Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, and BaTi4O9-BaZn2Ti4O11, has been investigated. We studied materials synthesized in our own lab and from commercial vendors. Then the measured loss tangent was correlated to the optical, structural, and electrical properties of the material. To accurately and quantitatively determine the microwave loss and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectra as a function of temperature and magnetic field, we developed parallel plate resonator (PPR) and dielectric resonator (DR) techniques. Our studies found a marked increase in the loss at low temperatures is found in materials containing transition metal with unpaired d-electrons as a result of resonant spin excitations in isolated atoms (light doping) or exchange coupled clusters (moderate to high doping) ; a mechanism that differs from the usual suspects. The loss tangent can be drastically reduced by applying static magnetic fields. Our measurements also show that this mechanism significantly contributes to room temperature loss, but does not dominate. In order to study the electronic structure of these materials, we grew single crystal thin film dielectrics for spectroscopic studies, including angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiment. We have synthesized stoichiometric Ba(Cd1/3Ta2/3)O3 [BCT] (100) dielectric thin films on MgO (100) substrates using Pulsed Laser Deposition. Over 99% of the BCT film was found to be epitaxial when grown with an elevated substrate temperature of 635 C, an enhanced oxygen pressures of 53 Pa and a Cd-enriched BCT target with a 1 mol BCT: 1.5 mol CdO composition. Analysis of ultra violet optical absorption results indicate that BCT has a bandgap of 4.9 eV.

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Date Created
2013

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Plasma surface interactions at interlayer dielectric (ILD) and metal surfaces

Description

In this dissertation, remote plasma interactions with the surfaces of low-k interlayer dielectric (ILD), Cu and Cu adhesion layers are investigated. The first part of the study focuses on the simultaneous plasma treatment of ILD and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)

In this dissertation, remote plasma interactions with the surfaces of low-k interlayer dielectric (ILD), Cu and Cu adhesion layers are investigated. The first part of the study focuses on the simultaneous plasma treatment of ILD and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) Cu surfaces using N2/H2 plasma processes. H atoms and radicals in the plasma react with the carbon groups leading to carbon removal for the ILD films. Results indicate that an N2 plasma forms an amide-like layer on the surface which apparently leads to reduced carbon abstraction from an H2 plasma process. In addition, FTIR spectra indicate the formation of hydroxyl (Si-OH) groups following the plasma exposure. Increased temperature (380 °C) processing leads to a reduction of the hydroxyl group formation compared to ambient temperature processes, resulting in reduced changes of the dielectric constant. For CMP Cu surfaces, the carbonate contamination was removed by an H2 plasma process at elevated temperature while the C-C and C-H contamination was removed by an N2 plasma process at elevated temperature. The second part of this study examined oxide stability and cleaning of Ru surfaces as well as consequent Cu film thermal stability with the Ru layers. The ~2 monolayer native Ru oxide was reduced after H-plasma processing. The thermal stability or islanding of the Cu film on the Ru substrate was characterized by in-situ XPS. After plasma cleaning of the Ru adhesion layer, the deposited Cu exhibited full coverage. In contrast, for Cu deposition on the Ru native oxide substrate, Cu islanding was detected and was described in terms of grain boundary grooving and surface and interface energies. The thermal stability of 7 nm Ti, Pt and Ru ii interfacial adhesion layers between a Cu film (10 nm) and a Ta barrier layer (4 nm) have been investigated in the third part. The barrier properties and interfacial stability have been evaluated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the surfaces before and after annealing, and all the surfaces are relatively smooth excluding islanding or de-wetting phenomena as a cause of the instability. The RBS showed no discernible diffusion across the adhesion layer/Ta and Ta/Si interfaces which provides a stable underlying layer. For a Ti interfacial layer RBS indicates that during 400 °C annealing Ti interdiffuses through the Cu film and accumulates at the surface. For the Pt/Cu system Pt interdiffuion is detected which is less evident than Ti. Among the three adhesion layer candidates, Ru shows negligible diffusion into the Cu film indicating thermal stability at 400 °C.

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Date Created
2012

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Interface electronic state characterization of dielectrics on diamond and C-BN

Description

Diamond and cubic boron nitride (c-BN) are ultra wide band gap semiconductors (Eg>3.4 eV) and share similar properties in various aspects, including being isoelectronic, a 1% lattice mismatch, large band gap, high thermal conductivity. Particularly, the negative electron affinity (NEA)

Diamond and cubic boron nitride (c-BN) are ultra wide band gap semiconductors (Eg>3.4 eV) and share similar properties in various aspects, including being isoelectronic, a 1% lattice mismatch, large band gap, high thermal conductivity. Particularly, the negative electron affinity (NEA) of diamond and c-BN is an unusual property that has led to effects such as p-type surface conductivity, low temperature thermionic emission, and photon enhanced thermionic emission. In this dissertation, the interface chemistry and electronic structure of dielectrics on diamond and c-BN are investigated with X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). The first study established that the surface conductive states could be established for thin Al2O3 on diamond using a post deposition H-plasma process. At each step of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma processing, the band alignment was characterized by in situ photoemission and related to interface charges. An interface layer between the diamond and dielectric layer was proposed to explain the surface conductivity. The second study further investigated the improvement of the hole mobility of surface conductive diamond. A thin layer of Al2O3 was employed as an interfacial layer between surface conductive hydrogen-terminated (H-terminated) diamond and MoO3 to increase the distance between the hole accumulation layer in diamond and negatively charged states in acceptor layer. With an interfacial layer, the ionic scattering, which was considered to limit the hole mobility, was reduced. By combining two oxides (Al2O3 and MoO3), the hole mobility and concentration were modulated by altering the thickness of the Al2O3 interfacial layer. The third study focused on the electronic structure of vanadium-oxide-terminated c-BN surfaces. The vanadium-oxide-termination was formed on c-BN by combining vanadium deposition using molecular beam deposition (MBD) and oxygen plasma treatment. After thermal annealing, a thermally stable NEA was achieved on c-BN. A model was proposed based on the deduced interface charge distribution to explain the establishment of an NEA.

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Date Created
2018

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In-situ Far Ultraviolet Optical Characterization of Atomic Layer Deposited Oxides and Fluorides

Description

In this dissertation, far UV spectroscopy is applied to investigate the optical properties of dielectric thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. The far UV (120 – 200 nm) reflectance for several dielectric oxides and fluorides, including AlF3, Al2O3, Ga2O3,

In this dissertation, far UV spectroscopy is applied to investigate the optical properties of dielectric thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. The far UV (120 – 200 nm) reflectance for several dielectric oxides and fluorides, including AlF3, Al2O3, Ga2O3, HfO2, and SiO2, was measured at variable angles and thicknesses. Multiple optical calculation methods were developed for the accurate determination of the optical constants from the reflectance. The deduced optical constants were used for optical designs, such as high-reflectivity coatings, and Fabry-Perot bandpass interference filters. Three filters were designed for use at 157 nm, 212 nm, and 248 nm wavelengths, based on multilayer structures consisting of SiO2, Al2O3, HfO2, and AlF3. A thorough error analysis was made to quantify the non-idealities of the optical performance for the designed filters. Far UV spectroscopy was also applied to analyze material mixtures, such as AlF3/Al and h-BN/c-BN mixtures. Using far UV spectroscopy, different phases in the composite can be distinguished, and the volume concentration of each constituent can be determined. A middle UV reflective coating based on A2O3 and AlF3 was fabricated and characterized. The reflective coating has a smooth surface (?? < 1 nm), and a peak reflectance of 25 – 30 % at a wavelength of 196 nm. The peak reflectance deviated from the design, and an analysis of the AlF3 layer prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) indicated the presence of Al-rich clusters, which were associated with the UV absorption. Complementary techniques, such as spectroscopic ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were used to verify the results from far UV spectroscopy. In conclusion, this Dissertation demonstrated the use of in-situ far UV spectroscopy to investigate the optical properties of thin films at short wavelengths. This work extends the application of far UV spectroscopy to ultrawide bandgap semiconductors and insulators. This work supports a path forward for far UV optical filters and devices. Various errors have been discussed with solutions proposed for future research of methods and materials for UV optics.

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Date Created
2021

Temperature and polarizability effects on electron transfer in biology and artificial photosynthesis

Description

This study aims to address the deficiencies of the Marcus model of electron transfer

(ET) and then provide modifications to the model. A confirmation of the inverted energy

gap law, which is the cleanest verification so far, is presented for donor-acceptor complexes.

In

This study aims to address the deficiencies of the Marcus model of electron transfer

(ET) and then provide modifications to the model. A confirmation of the inverted energy

gap law, which is the cleanest verification so far, is presented for donor-acceptor complexes.

In addition to the macroscopic properties of the solvent, the physical properties of the solvent

are incorporated in the model via the microscopic solvation model. For the molecules

studied in this dissertation, the rate constant first increases with cooling, in contrast to the

prediction of the Arrhenius law, and then decreases at lower temperatures. Additionally,

the polarizability of solute, which was not considered in the original Marcus theory, is included

by the Q-model of ET. Through accounting for the polarizability of the reactants, the

Q-model offers an important design principle for achieving high performance solar energy

conversion materials. By means of the analytical Q-model of ET, it is shown that including

molecular polarizability of C60 affects the reorganization energy and the activation barrier

of ET reaction.

The theory and Electrochemistry of Ferredoxin and Cytochrome c are also investigated.

By providing a new formulation for reaction reorganization energy, a long-standing disconnect

between the results of atomistic simulations and cyclic voltametery experiments is

resolved. The significant role of polarizability of enzymes in reducing the activation energy

of ET is discussed. The binding/unbinding of waters to the active site of Ferredoxin leads

to non-Gaussian statistics of energy gap and result in a smaller activation energy of ET.

Furthermore, the dielectric constant of water at the interface of neutral and charged

C60 is studied. The dielectric constant is found to be in the range of 10 to 22 which is

remarkably smaller compared to bulk water( 80). Moreover, the interfacial structural

crossover and hydration thermodynamic of charged C60 in water is studied. Increasing the

charge of the C60 molecule result in a dramatic structural transition in the hydration shell,

which lead to increase in the population of dangling O-H bonds at the interface.

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Created

Date Created
2019

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Development of Magnetically Tunable High-Performance Dielectric Ceramics

Description

Losses in commercial microwave dielectrics arise from spin excitations in paramagnetic transition metal dopants, at least at reduced temperatures. The magnitude of the loss tangent can be altered by orders of magnitude through the application of an external magnetic field.

Losses in commercial microwave dielectrics arise from spin excitations in paramagnetic transition metal dopants, at least at reduced temperatures. The magnitude of the loss tangent can be altered by orders of magnitude through the application of an external magnetic field. The goal of this thesis is to produce “smart” dielectrics that can be switched “on” or “off” at small magnetic fields while investigating the influence of transition metal dopants on the dielectric, magnetic, and structural properties.

A proof of principle demonstration of a resonator that can switch from a high-Q “on state” to a low-Q “off state” at reduced temperatures is demonstrated in (Al1-xFex)2O3 and La(Al1-xFex)O3. The Fe3+ ions are in a high spin state (S=5/2) and undergo electron paramagnetic resonance absorption transitions that increase the microwave loss of the system. Transitions occur between mJ states with a corresponding change in the angular momentum, J, by ±ħ (i.e., ΔmJ=±1) at small magnetic fields. The paramagnetic ions also have an influence on the dielectric and magnetic properties, which I explore in these systems along with another low loss complex perovskite material, Ca[(Al1-xFex)1/2Nb1/2]O3. I describe what constitutes an optimal microwave loss switchable material induced from EPR transitions and the mechanisms associated with the key properties.

As a first step to modeling the properties of high-performance microwave host lattices and ultimately their performance at microwave frequencies, a first-principles approach is used to determine the structural phase stability of various complex perovskites with a range of tolerance factors at 0 K and finite temperatures. By understanding the correct structural phases of these complex perovskites, the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency can be better predicted.

A strong understanding of these parameters is expected to open the possibility to produce new types of high-performance switchable filters, time domain MIMO’s, multiplexers, and demultiplexers.

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Date Created
2020

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Polarization and electronic state configuration of III-N surfaces and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited dielectric interfaces

Description

GaN and AlGaN have shown great potential in next-generation power and RF electronics. However, these devices are limited by reliability issues such as leakage current and current collapse that result from surface and interface states on GaN and AlGaN. This

GaN and AlGaN have shown great potential in next-generation power and RF electronics. However, these devices are limited by reliability issues such as leakage current and current collapse that result from surface and interface states on GaN and AlGaN. This dissertation, therefore, examined these electronic states, focusing on the following two points:

First, the surface electronic state configuration was examined with regards to the polarization bound 1013 charges/cm2 that increases with aluminum content. This large bound charge requires compensation either externally by surface states or internally by the space charge regions as relates to band bending. In this work, band bending was measured after different surface treatments of GaN and AlGaN to determine the effects of specific surface states on the electronic state configuration. Results showed oxygen-terminated N-face GaN, Ga-face GaN, and Ga-face Al0.25Ga0.75N surface were characterized by similar band bending regardless of the polarization bound charge, suggesting a Fermi level pinning state ~0.4-0.8 eV below the conduction band minimum. On oxygen-free Ga-face GaN, Al0.15Ga0.85N, Al0.25Ga0.75N, and Al0.35Ga0.65N, band bending increased slightly with aluminum content and thus did not exhibit the same pinning behavior; however, there was still significant compensating charge on these surfaces (~1013 charges/cm2). This charge is likely related to nitrogen vacancies and/or gallium dangling bonds.

In addition, this wozrk investigated the interface electronic state configuration of dielectric/GaN and AlGaN interfaces with regards to deposition conditions and aluminum content. Specifically, oxygen plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) was used to deposit SiO2. Growth temperature was shown to influence the film quality, where room temperature deposition produced the highest quality films in terms of electrical breakdown. In addition, the valence band offsets (VBOs) appeared to decrease with the deposition temperature, which likely related to an electric field across the Ga2O3 interfacial layer. VBOs were also determined with respect to aluminum content at the PEALD-SiO2/AlxGa1-xN interface, giving 3.0, 2.9, 2.9, and 2.8 eV for 0%, 15%, 25%, and 35% aluminum content, respectively—with corresponding conduction band offsets of 2.5, 2.2, 1.9, and 1.8 eV. This suggests the largest difference manifests in the conduction band, which is in agreement with the charge neutrality level model.

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Date Created
2015