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Design of a twelve bit, four hundred mega-samples-per-second, interpolating dual channel digital to analog converter featuring digital modulation

Description

Digital to analog converters (DACs) find widespread use in communications equipment. Most commercially available DAC's which are intended to be used in transmitter applications come in a dual configuration for carrying the in phase (I) and quadrature (Q) data and

Digital to analog converters (DACs) find widespread use in communications equipment. Most commercially available DAC's which are intended to be used in transmitter applications come in a dual configuration for carrying the in phase (I) and quadrature (Q) data and feature on chip digital mixing. Digital mixing offers many benefits concerning I and Q matching but has one major drawback; the update rate of the DAC must be higher than the intermediate frequency (IF) which is most commonly a factor of 4. This drawback motivates the need for interpolation so that a low update rate can be used for components preceding the DACs. In this thesis the design of an interpolating DAC integrated circuit (IC) to be used in a transmitter application for generating a 100MHz IF is presented. Many of the transistor level implementations are provided. The tradeoffs in the design are analyzed and various options are discussed. This thesis provides a basic foundation for designing an IC of this nature and will give the reader insight into potential areas of further research. At the time of this writing the chip is in fabrication therefore this document does not contain test results.

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Date Created
2013

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Design and calibration of a 12-bit current-steering DAC using data-interleaving

Description

High speed current-steering DACs with high linearity are needed in today's applications such as wired and wireless communications, instrumentation, radar, and other direct digital synthesis (DDS) applications. However, a trade-off exists between the speed and resolution of Nyquist rate

High speed current-steering DACs with high linearity are needed in today's applications such as wired and wireless communications, instrumentation, radar, and other direct digital synthesis (DDS) applications. However, a trade-off exists between the speed and resolution of Nyquist rate current-steering DACs. As the resolution increases, more transistor area is required to meet matching requirements for optimal linearity and thus, the overall speed of the DAC is limited.

In this thesis work, a 12-bit current-steering DAC was designed with current sources scaled below the required matching size to decrease the area and increase the overall speed of the DAC. By scaling the current sources, however, errors due to random mismatch between current sources will arise and additional calibration hardware is necessary to ensure 12-bit linearity. This work presents how to implement a self-calibration DAC that works to fix amplitude errors while maintaining a lower overall area. Additionally, the DAC designed in this thesis investigates the implementation feasibility of a data-interleaved architecture. Data interleaving can increase the total bandwidth of the DACs by 2 with an increase in SQNR by an additional 3 dB.

The final results show that the calibration method can effectively improve the linearity of the DAC. The DAC is able to run up to 400 MSPS frequencies with a 75 dB SFDR performance and above 87 dB SFDR performance at update rates of 200 MSPS.

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Date Created
2014

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Fast transient digitally controlled buck regulator with inductor current slew rate boost

Description

Mobile electronic devices such as smart phones, netbooks and tablets have seen increasing demand in recent years, and so has the need for efficient, responsive and small power management solutions that are integrated into these devices. Every thing from the

Mobile electronic devices such as smart phones, netbooks and tablets have seen increasing demand in recent years, and so has the need for efficient, responsive and small power management solutions that are integrated into these devices. Every thing from the battery life to the screen brightness to how warm the device gets depends on the power management solution integrated within the device. Much of the future success of these mobile devices will depend on innovative, reliable and efficient power solutions. Perhaps this is one of the drivers behind the intense research activity seen in the power management field in recent years. The demand for higher accuracy regulation and fast response in switching converters has led to the exploration of digital control techniques as a way to implement more advanced control architectures. In this thesis, a novel digitally controlled step-down (buck) switching converter architecture that makes use of switched capacitors to improve the transient response is presented. Using the proposed architecture, the transient response is improved by a factor of two or more in comparison to the theoretical limits that can be achieved with a basic step down converter control architecture. The architecture presented in this thesis is not limited to digitally controlled topologies but rather can also be used in analog topologies as well. Design and simulation results of a 1.8V, 15W, 1MHz digitally controlled step down converter with a 12mV Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) resolution and a 2ns DPWM (Digital Pulse Width Modulator) resolution are presented.

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Date Created
2013

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Single-inductor, dual-input CCM boost converter for multi-junction PV energy harvesting

Description

This thesis presents a power harvesting system combining energy from sub-cells of

multi-junction photovoltaic (MJ-PV) cells. A dual-input, inductor time-sharing boost

converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) is proposed. A hysteresis inductor current

regulation in designed to reduce cross regulation caused by inductor-sharing

This thesis presents a power harvesting system combining energy from sub-cells of

multi-junction photovoltaic (MJ-PV) cells. A dual-input, inductor time-sharing boost

converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) is proposed. A hysteresis inductor current

regulation in designed to reduce cross regulation caused by inductor-sharing in CCM. A

modified hill-climbing algorithm is implemented to achieve maximum power point

tracking (MPPT). A dual-path architecture is implemented to provide a regulated 1.8V

output. A proposed lossless current sensor monitors transient inductor current and a time-based power monitor is proposed to monitor PV power. The PV input provides power of

65mW. Measured results show that the peak efficiency achieved is around 85%. The

power switches and control circuits are implemented in standard 0.18um CMOS process.

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Date Created
2017

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Highly integrated switched-mode power converters employing CMOS and GaN technologies for distributed MPPT

Description

The photovoltaic systems used to convert solar energy to electricity pose a multitude of design and implementation challenges, including energy conversion efficiency, partial shading effects, and power converter efficiency. Using power converters for Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking (DMPPT) is

The photovoltaic systems used to convert solar energy to electricity pose a multitude of design and implementation challenges, including energy conversion efficiency, partial shading effects, and power converter efficiency. Using power converters for Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking (DMPPT) is a well-known architecture to significantly reduce power loss associated with mismatched panels. Sub-panel-level DMPPT is shown to have up to 14.5% more annual energy yield than panel-level DMPPT, and requires an efficient medium power converter.

This research aims at implementing a highly efficient power management system at sub-panel level with focus on system cost and form-factor. Smaller form-factor motivates increased converter switching frequencies to significantly reduce the size of converter passives and substantially improve transient performance. But, currently available power MOSFETs put a constraint on the highest possible switching frequency due to increased switching losses. The solution is Gallium Nitride based power devices, which deliver figure of merit (FOM) performance at least an order of magnitude higher than existing silicon MOSFETs. Low power loss, high power density, low cost and small die sizes are few of the qualities that make e-GaN superior to its Si counterpart. With careful design, e-GaN can enable a 20-30% improvement in power stage efficiency compared to converters using Si MOSFETs.

The main objective of this research is to develop a highly integrated, high efficiency, 20MHz, hybrid GaN-CMOS DC-DC MPPT converter for a 12V/5A sub-panel. Hard and soft switching boost converter topologies are investigated within this research, and an innovative CMOS gate drive technique for efficiently driving an e-GaN power stage is presented in this work. The converter controller also employs a fast converging analog MPPT control technique.

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Date Created
2015