Matching Items (6)

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Single-inductor, dual-input CCM boost converter for multi-junction PV energy harvesting

Description

This thesis presents a power harvesting system combining energy from sub-cells of

multi-junction photovoltaic (MJ-PV) cells. A dual-input, inductor time-sharing boost

converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) is proposed. A hysteresis inductor

This thesis presents a power harvesting system combining energy from sub-cells of

multi-junction photovoltaic (MJ-PV) cells. A dual-input, inductor time-sharing boost

converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) is proposed. A hysteresis inductor current

regulation in designed to reduce cross regulation caused by inductor-sharing in CCM. A

modified hill-climbing algorithm is implemented to achieve maximum power point

tracking (MPPT). A dual-path architecture is implemented to provide a regulated 1.8V

output. A proposed lossless current sensor monitors transient inductor current and a time-based power monitor is proposed to monitor PV power. The PV input provides power of

65mW. Measured results show that the peak efficiency achieved is around 85%. The

power switches and control circuits are implemented in standard 0.18um CMOS process.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Impact of converter interfaced generation and load on grid performance

Description

Alternate sources of energy such as wind, solar photovoltaic and fuel cells are coupled to the power grid with the help of solid state converters. Continued deregulation of the power

Alternate sources of energy such as wind, solar photovoltaic and fuel cells are coupled to the power grid with the help of solid state converters. Continued deregulation of the power sector coupled with favorable government incentives has resulted in the rapid growth of renewable energy sources connected to the distribution system at a voltage level of 34.5kV or below. Of late, many utilities are also investing in these alternate sources of energy with the point of interconnection with the power grid being at the transmission level. These converter interfaced generation along with their associated control have the ability to provide the advantage of fast control of frequency, voltage, active, and reactive power. However, their ability to provide stability in a large system is yet to be investigated in detail. This is the primary objective of this research.

In the future, along with an increase in the percentage of converter interfaced renewable energy sources connected to the transmission network, there exists a possibility of even connecting synchronous machines to the grid through converters. Thus, all sources of energy can be expected to be coupled to the grid through converters. The control and operation of such a grid will be unlike anything that has been encountered till now. In this dissertation, the operation and behavior of such a grid will be investigated. The first step in such an analysis will be to build an accurate and simple mathematical model to represent the corresponding components in commercial software. Once this bridge has been crossed, conventional machines will be replaced with their solid state interfaced counterparts in a phased manner. At each stage, attention will be devoted to the control of these sources and also on the stability performance of the large power system.

This dissertation addresses various concerns regarding the control and operation of a futuristic power grid. In addition, this dissertation also aims to address the issue of whether a requirement may arise to redefine operational reliability criteria based on the results obtained.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Highly integrated switched-mode power converters employing CMOS and GaN technologies for distributed MPPT

Description

The photovoltaic systems used to convert solar energy to electricity pose a multitude of design and implementation challenges, including energy conversion efficiency, partial shading effects, and power converter efficiency. Using

The photovoltaic systems used to convert solar energy to electricity pose a multitude of design and implementation challenges, including energy conversion efficiency, partial shading effects, and power converter efficiency. Using power converters for Distributed Maximum Power Point Tracking (DMPPT) is a well-known architecture to significantly reduce power loss associated with mismatched panels. Sub-panel-level DMPPT is shown to have up to 14.5% more annual energy yield than panel-level DMPPT, and requires an efficient medium power converter.

This research aims at implementing a highly efficient power management system at sub-panel level with focus on system cost and form-factor. Smaller form-factor motivates increased converter switching frequencies to significantly reduce the size of converter passives and substantially improve transient performance. But, currently available power MOSFETs put a constraint on the highest possible switching frequency due to increased switching losses. The solution is Gallium Nitride based power devices, which deliver figure of merit (FOM) performance at least an order of magnitude higher than existing silicon MOSFETs. Low power loss, high power density, low cost and small die sizes are few of the qualities that make e-GaN superior to its Si counterpart. With careful design, e-GaN can enable a 20-30% improvement in power stage efficiency compared to converters using Si MOSFETs.

The main objective of this research is to develop a highly integrated, high efficiency, 20MHz, hybrid GaN-CMOS DC-DC MPPT converter for a 12V/5A sub-panel. Hard and soft switching boost converter topologies are investigated within this research, and an innovative CMOS gate drive technique for efficiently driving an e-GaN power stage is presented in this work. The converter controller also employs a fast converging analog MPPT control technique.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Fast transient digitally controlled buck regulator with inductor current slew rate boost

Description

Mobile electronic devices such as smart phones, netbooks and tablets have seen increasing demand in recent years, and so has the need for efficient, responsive and small power management solutions

Mobile electronic devices such as smart phones, netbooks and tablets have seen increasing demand in recent years, and so has the need for efficient, responsive and small power management solutions that are integrated into these devices. Every thing from the battery life to the screen brightness to how warm the device gets depends on the power management solution integrated within the device. Much of the future success of these mobile devices will depend on innovative, reliable and efficient power solutions. Perhaps this is one of the drivers behind the intense research activity seen in the power management field in recent years. The demand for higher accuracy regulation and fast response in switching converters has led to the exploration of digital control techniques as a way to implement more advanced control architectures. In this thesis, a novel digitally controlled step-down (buck) switching converter architecture that makes use of switched capacitors to improve the transient response is presented. Using the proposed architecture, the transient response is improved by a factor of two or more in comparison to the theoretical limits that can be achieved with a basic step down converter control architecture. The architecture presented in this thesis is not limited to digitally controlled topologies but rather can also be used in analog topologies as well. Design and simulation results of a 1.8V, 15W, 1MHz digitally controlled step down converter with a 12mV Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) resolution and a 2ns DPWM (Digital Pulse Width Modulator) resolution are presented.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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PID controller tuning and adaptation of a buck converter

Description

Buck converters are electronic devices that changes a voltage from one level to a lower one and are present in many everyday applications. However, due to factors like aging, degradation

Buck converters are electronic devices that changes a voltage from one level to a lower one and are present in many everyday applications. However, due to factors like aging, degradation or failures, these devices require a system identification process to track and diagnose their parameters. The system identification process should be performed on-line to not affect the normal operation of the device. Identifying the parameters of the system is essential to design and tune an adaptive proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller.

Three techniques were used to design the PID controller. Phase and gain margin still prevails as one of the easiest methods to design controllers. Pole-zero cancellation is another technique which is based on pole-placement. However, although these controllers can be easily designed, they did not provide the best response compared to the Frequency Loop Shaping (FLS) technique. Therefore, since FLS showed to have a better frequency and time responses compared to the other two controllers, it was selected to perform the adaptation of the system.

An on-line system identification process was performed for the buck converter using indirect adaptation and the least square algorithm. The estimation error and the parameter error were computed to determine the rate of convergence of the system. The indirect adaptation required about 2000 points to converge to the true parameters prior designing the controller. These results were compared to the adaptation executed using robust stability condition (RSC) and a switching controller. Two different scenarios were studied consisting of five plants that defined the percentage of deterioration of the capacitor and inductor within the buck converter. The switching logic did not always select the optimal controller for the first scenario because the frequency response of the different plants was not significantly different. However, the second scenario consisted of plants with more noticeable different frequency responses and the switching logic selected the optimal controller all the time in about 500 points. Additionally, a disturbance was introduced at the plant input to observe its effect in the switching controller. However, for reasonable low disturbances no change was detected in the proper selection of controllers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Dual active bridge converter with PWM control in solid state transformer application

Description

For the solid-state transformer (SST) application, a three-stage configuration consisting of a PWM rectifier based AC/DC stage, a dual active bridge (DAB) converter based DC/DC stage and a PWM inverter

For the solid-state transformer (SST) application, a three-stage configuration consisting of a PWM rectifier based AC/DC stage, a dual active bridge (DAB) converter based DC/DC stage and a PWM inverter based DC/AC stage offers several advantages. For single-phase SST, the instantaneous input and load power seen by the DC/DC stage varies from zero to twice the load average power at double the line frequency. Traditionally, with phase-shift control, large DAB DC link capacitors are used to handle the instantaneous power variation of the load, with the DAB converter processing only the load average power resulting in better soft-switching range and consequently high efficiency. However, the large electrolytic capacitors required adversely affect the power density and the reliability of SST. In this thesis, a PWM control is used for the DAB converter in SST, which extends the ZVS range of DAB and allows the DAB converter to handle the pulsating power while maintaining/improving efficiency. The impact of the output capacitance of switches with PWM control is discussed for practical implementation. A 40kHz, 500W DAB converter is designed and built, and the experimental results proves that the DAB converter with PWM control in SST can achieve comparable efficiency while the DC link capacitors of SST can be reduced to a value that electrolytic capacitors are not required.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012