Matching Items (8)

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Control and data analysis of complex networks

Description

This dissertation treats a number of related problems in control and data analysis of complex networks.

First, in existing linear controllability frameworks, the ability to steer a network from any initiate

This dissertation treats a number of related problems in control and data analysis of complex networks.

First, in existing linear controllability frameworks, the ability to steer a network from any initiate state toward any desired state is measured by the minimum number of driver nodes. However, the associated optimal control energy can become unbearably large, preventing actual control from being realized. Here I develop a physical controllability framework and propose strategies to turn physically uncontrollable networks into physically controllable ones. I also discover that although full control can be guaranteed by the prevailing structural controllability theory, it is necessary to balance the number of driver nodes and control energy to achieve actual control, and my work provides a framework to address this issue.

Second, in spite of recent progresses in linear controllability, controlling nonlinear dynamical networks remains an outstanding problem. Here I develop an experimentally feasible control framework for nonlinear dynamical networks that exhibit multistability. The control objective is to apply parameter perturbation to drive the system from one attractor to another. I introduce the concept of attractor network and formulate a quantifiable framework: a network is more controllable if the attractor network is more strongly connected. I test the control framework using examples from various models and demonstrate the beneficial role of noise in facilitating control.

Third, I analyze large data sets from a diverse online social networking (OSN) systems and find that the growth dynamics of meme popularity exhibit characteristically different behaviors: linear, “S”-shape and exponential growths. Inspired by cell population growth model in microbial ecology, I construct a base growth model for meme popularity in OSNs. Then I incorporate human interest dynamics into the base model and propose a hybrid model which contains a small number of free parameters. The model successfully predicts the various distinct meme growth dynamics.

At last, I propose a nonlinear dynamics model to characterize the controlling of WNT signaling pathway in the differentiation of neural progenitor cells. The model is able to predict experiment results and shed light on the understanding of WNT regulation mechanisms.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Predicting and Controlling Complex Dynamical Systems

Description

Complex dynamical systems are the kind of systems with many interacting components that usually have nonlinear dynamics. Those systems exist in a wide range of disciplines, such as physical, biological,

Complex dynamical systems are the kind of systems with many interacting components that usually have nonlinear dynamics. Those systems exist in a wide range of disciplines, such as physical, biological, and social fields. Those systems, due to a large amount of interacting components, tend to possess very high dimensionality. Additionally, due to the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics, they have tremendous rich system behavior, such as bifurcation, synchronization, chaos, solitons. To develop methods to predict and control those systems has always been a challenge and an active research area.

My research mainly concentrates on predicting and controlling tipping points (saddle-node bifurcation) in complex ecological systems, comparing linear and nonlinear control methods in complex dynamical systems. Moreover, I use advanced artificial neural networks to predict chaotic spatiotemporal dynamical systems. Complex networked systems can exhibit a tipping point (a “point of no return”) at which a total collapse occurs. Using complex mutualistic networks in ecology as a prototype class of systems, I carry out a dimension reduction process to arrive at an effective two-dimensional (2D) system with the two dynamical variables corresponding to the average pollinator and plant abundances, respectively. I demonstrate that, using 59 empirical mutualistic networks extracted from real data, our 2D model can accurately predict the occurrence of a tipping point even in the presence of stochastic disturbances. I also develop an ecologically feasible strategy to manage/control the tipping point by maintaining the abundance of a particular pollinator species at a constant level, which essentially removes the hysteresis associated with tipping points.

Besides, I also find that the nodal importance ranking for nonlinear and linear control exhibits opposite trends: for the former, large degree nodes are more important but for the latter, the importance scale is tilted towards the small-degree nodes, suggesting strongly irrelevance of linear controllability to these systems. Focusing on a class of recurrent neural networks - reservoir computing systems that have recently been exploited for model-free prediction of nonlinear dynamical systems, I uncover a surprising phenomenon: the emergence of an interval in the spectral radius of the neural network in which the prediction error is minimized.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Analysis and Control of Space Systems Dynamics via Floquet Theory, Normal Forms and Center Manifold Reduction

Description

It remains unquestionable that space-based technology is an indispensable component of modern daily lives. Success or failure of space missions is largely contingent upon the complex system analysis and design

It remains unquestionable that space-based technology is an indispensable component of modern daily lives. Success or failure of space missions is largely contingent upon the complex system analysis and design methodologies exerted in converting the initial idea

into an elaborate functioning enterprise. It is for this reason that this dissertation seeks to contribute towards the search for simpler, efficacious and more reliable methodologies and tools that accurately model and analyze space systems dynamics. Inopportunely, despite the inimical physical hazards, space systems must endure a perturbing dynamical environment that persistently disorients spacecraft attitude, dislodges spacecraft from their designated orbital locations and compels spacecraft to follow undesired orbital trajectories. The ensuing dynamics’ analytical models are complexly structured, consisting of parametrically excited nonlinear systems with external periodic excitations–whose analysis and control is not a trivial task. Therefore, this dissertation’s objective is to overcome the limitations of traditional approaches (averaging and perturbation, linearization) commonly used to analyze and control such dynamics; and, further obtain more accurate closed-form analytical solutions in a lucid and broadly applicable manner. This dissertation hence implements a multi-faceted methodology that relies on Floquet theory, invariant center manifold reduction and normal forms simplification. At the heart of this approach is an intuitive system state augmentation technique that transforms non-autonomous nonlinear systems into autonomous ones. Two fitting representative types of space systems dynamics are investigated; i) attitude motion of a gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft in an eccentric orbit, ii) spacecraft motion in the vicinity of irregularly shaped small bodies. This investigation demonstrates how to analyze the motion stability, chaos, periodicity and resonance. Further, versal deformation of the normal forms scrutinizes the bifurcation behavior of the gravity gradient stabilized attitude motion. Control laws developed on transformed, more tractable analytical models show that; unlike linear control laws, nonlinear control strategies such as sliding mode control and bifurcation control stabilize the intricate, unwieldy astrodynamics. The pitch attitude dynamics are stabilized; and, a regular periodic orbit realized in the vicinity of small irregularly shaped bodies. Importantly, the outcomes obtained are unconventionally realized as closed-form analytical solutions obtained via the comprehensive approach introduced by this dissertation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Quantum nonlinear dynamics in graphene, optomechanical, and semiconductor superlattice systems

Description

Conductance fluctuations associated with quantum transport through quantumdot systems are currently understood to depend on the nature of the corresponding classical dynamics, i.e., integrable or chaotic. There are a couple

Conductance fluctuations associated with quantum transport through quantumdot systems are currently understood to depend on the nature of the corresponding classical dynamics, i.e., integrable or chaotic. There are a couple of interesting phenomena about conductance fluctuation and quantum tunneling related to geometrical shapes of graphene systems. Firstly, in graphene quantum-dot systems, when a magnetic field is present, as the Fermi energy or the magnetic flux is varied, both regular oscillations and random fluctuations in the conductance can occur, with alternating transitions between the two. Secondly, a scheme based on geometrical rotation of rectangular devices to effectively modulate the conductance fluctuations is presented. Thirdly, when graphene is placed on a substrate of heavy metal, Rashba spin-orbit interaction of substantial strength can occur. In an open system such as a quantum dot, the interaction can induce spin polarization. Finally, a problem using graphene systems with electron-electron interactions described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in the setting of resonant tunneling is investigated.

Another interesting problem in quantum transport is the effect of disorder or random impurities since it is inevitable in real experiments. At first, for a twodimensional Dirac ring, as the disorder density is systematically increased, the persistent current decreases slowly initially and then plateaus at a finite nonzero value, indicating remarkable robustness of the persistent currents, which cannot be discovered in normal metal and semiconductor rings. In addition, in a Floquet system with a ribbon structure, the conductance can be remarkably enhanced by onsite disorder.

Recent years have witnessed significant interest in nanoscale physical systems, such as semiconductor supperlattices and optomechanical systems, which can exhibit distinct collective dynamical behaviors. Firstly, a system of two optically coupled optomechanical cavities is considered and the phenomenon of synchronization transition associated with quantum entanglement transition is discovered. Another useful issue is nonlinear dynamics in semiconductor superlattices caused by its key potential application lies in generating radiation sources, amplifiers and detectors in the spectral range of terahertz. In such a system, transition to multistability, i.e., the emergence of multistability with chaos as a system parameter passes through a critical point, is found and argued to be abrupt.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Basins of attraction in human balance

Description

According to the CDC in 2010, there were 2.8 million emergency room visits costing $7.9 billion dollars for treatment of nonfatal falling injuries in emergency departments across the country. Falls

According to the CDC in 2010, there were 2.8 million emergency room visits costing $7.9 billion dollars for treatment of nonfatal falling injuries in emergency departments across the country. Falls are a recognized risk factor for unintentional injuries among older adults, accounting for a large proportion of fractures, emergency department visits, and urgent hospitalizations. The objective of this research was to identify and learn more about what factors affect balance using analysis techniques from nonlinear dynamics. Human balance and gait research traditionally uses linear or qualitative tests to assess and describe human motion; however, it is growing more apparent that human motion is neither a simple nor a linear task. In the 1990s Collins, first started applying stochastic processes to analyze human postural control system. Recently, Zakynthinaki et al. modeled human balance using the idea that humans will remain erect when perturbed until some boundary, or physical limit, is passed. This boundary is similar to the notion of basins of attraction in nonlinear dynamics and is referred to as the basin of stability. Human balance data was collected using dual force plates and Vicon marker position data for leans using only ankle movements and leans that were unrestricted. With this dataset, Zakynthinaki’s work was extended by comparing different algorithms used to create the critical curve (basin of stability boundary) that encloses the experimental data points as well as comparing the differences between the two leaning conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Synthesis of Biological and Mathematical Methods for Gene Network Control

Description

Synthetic biology is an emerging field which melds genetics, molecular biology, network theory, and mathematical systems to understand, build, and predict gene network behavior. As an engineering discipline, developing a

Synthetic biology is an emerging field which melds genetics, molecular biology, network theory, and mathematical systems to understand, build, and predict gene network behavior. As an engineering discipline, developing a mathematical understanding of the genetic circuits being studied is of fundamental importance. In this dissertation, mathematical concepts for understanding, predicting, and controlling gene transcriptional networks are presented and applied to two synthetic gene network contexts. First, this engineering approach is used to improve the function of the guide ribonucleic acid (gRNA)-targeted, dCas9-regulated transcriptional cascades through analysis and targeted modification of the RNA transcript. In so doing, a fluorescent guide RNA (fgRNA) is developed to more clearly observe gRNA dynamics and aid design. It is shown that through careful optimization, RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) driven gRNA transcripts can be strong enough to exhibit measurable cascading behavior, previously only shown in RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) circuits. Second, inherent gene expression noise is used to achieve precise fractional differentiation of a population. Mathematical methods are employed to predict and understand the observed behavior, and metrics for analyzing and quantifying similar differentiation kinetics are presented. Through careful mathematical analysis and simulation, coupled with experimental data, two methods for achieving ratio control are presented, with the optimal schema for any application being dependent on the noisiness of the system under study. Together, these studies push the boundaries of gene network control, with potential applications in stem cell differentiation, therapeutics, and bio-production.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Nonlinear dynamics of uncertain multi-joint structures

Description

The present investigation is part of a long-term effort focused on the development of a methodology for the computationally efficient prediction of the dynamic response of structures with multiple joints.

The present investigation is part of a long-term effort focused on the development of a methodology for the computationally efficient prediction of the dynamic response of structures with multiple joints. The first part of this thesis reports on the dynamic response of nominally identical beams with a single lap joint (“Brake-Reuss” beam). The observed impact responses at different levels clearly demonstrate the occurrence of both micro- and macro-slip, which are reflected by increased damping and a lowering of natural frequencies. Significant beam-to-beam variability of impact responses is also observed.

Based on these experimental results, a deterministic 4-parameter Iwan model of the joint was developed. These parameters were randomized following a previous investigation. The randomness in the impact response predicted from this uncertain model was assessed in a Monte Carlo format through a series of time integrations of the response and found to be consistent with the experimental results.

The availability of an uncertain computational model for the Brake-Reuss beam provides a starting point to analyze and model the response of multi-joint structures in the presence of uncertainty/variability. To this end, a 4-beam frame was designed that is composed of three identical Brake-Reuss beams and a fourth, stretched one. The response of that structure to impact was computed and several cases were identified.

The presence of uncertainty implies that an exact prediction of the response of a particular frame cannot be achieved. Rather, the response can only be predicted to lie within a band reflecting the level of uncertainty. In this perspective, the computational model adopted for the frame is only required to provide a good estimate of this uncertainty band. Equivalently, a relaxation of the model complexity, i.e., the introduction of epistemic uncertainty, can be performed as long as it does not affect significantly the uncertainty band of the predictions. Such an approach, which holds significant promise for the efficient computational of the response of structures with many uncertain joints, is assessed here by replacing some joints by linear spring elements. It is found that this simplification of the model is often acceptable at lower excitation/response levels.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Stability and reducibility of quasi-periodic systems

Description

In this work, we focused on the stability and reducibility of quasi-periodic systems. We examined the quasi-periodic linear Mathieu equation of the form x ̈+(ä+ϵ[cost+cosùt])x=0 The stability of solutions of

In this work, we focused on the stability and reducibility of quasi-periodic systems. We examined the quasi-periodic linear Mathieu equation of the form x ̈+(ä+ϵ[cost+cosùt])x=0 The stability of solutions of Mathieu's equation as a function of parameter values (ä,ϵ) had been analyzed in this work. We used the Floquet type theory to generate stability diagrams which were used to determine the bounded regions of stability in the ä-ù plane for fixed ϵ. In the case of reducibility, we first applied the Lyapunov- Floquet (LF) transformation and modal transformation, which converted the linear part of the system into the Jordan form. Very importantly, quasi-periodic near-identity transformation was applied to reduce the system equations to a constant coefficient system by solving homological equations via harmonic balance. In this process we obtained the reducibility/resonance conditions that needed to be satisfied to convert a quasi-periodic system to a constant one.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012