Matching Items (8)

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Comparison of four methods to assess silver release from nano impregnated reverse osmosis membranes

Description

With the application of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in the wastewater treatment and seawater desalination, the limitation of flux and fouling problems of RO have gained more attention from researchers.

With the application of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in the wastewater treatment and seawater desalination, the limitation of flux and fouling problems of RO have gained more attention from researchers. Because of the tunable structure and physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, it is a suitable material that can be used to incorporate with RO to change the membrane performances. Silver is biocidal, which has been used in a variety of consumer products. Recent studies showed that fabricating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on membrane surfaces can mitigate the biofouling problem on the membrane. Studies have shown that Ag released from the membrane in the form of either Ag ions or AgNP will accelerate the antimicrobial activity of the membrane. However, the silver release from the membrane will lower the silver loading on the membrane, which will eventually shorten the antimicrobial activity lifetime of the membrane. Therefore, the silver leaching amount is a crucial parameter that needs to be determined for every type of Ag composite membrane.

This study is attempting to compare four different silver leaching test methods, to study the silver leaching potential of the silver impregnated membranes, conducting the advantages and disadvantages of the leaching methods. An In-situ reduction Ag loaded RO membrane was examined in this study. A custom waterjet test was established to create a high-velocity water flow to test the silver leaching from the nanocomposite membrane in a relative extreme environment. The batch leaching test was examined as the most common leaching test method for the silver composite membrane. The cross-flow filtration and dead-end test were also examined to compare the silver leaching amounts.

The silver coated membrane used in this experiment has an initial silver loading of 2.0± 0.51 ug/cm2. The mass balance was conducted for all of the leaching tests. For the batch test, water jet test, and dead-end filtration, the mass balances are all within 100±25%, which is acceptable in this experiment because of the variance of the initial silver loading on the membranes. A bad silver mass balance was observed at cross-flow filtration. Both of AgNP and Ag ions leached in the solution was examined in this experiment. The concentration of total silver leaching into solutions from the four leaching tests are all below the Secondary Drinking Water Standard for silver which is 100 ppb. The cross-flow test is the most aggressive leaching method, which has more than 80% of silver leached from the membrane after 50 hours of the test. The water jet (54 ± 6.9% of silver remaining) can cause higher silver leaching than batch test (85 ± 1.2% of silver remaining) in one-hour, and it can also cause both AgNP and Ag ions leaching from the membrane, which is closer to the leaching condition in the cross-flow test.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Inflatable parabolic reflectors for small satellite communication

Description

CubeSats offer a compelling pathway towards lowering the cost of interplanetary exploration missions thanks to their low mass and volume. This has been possible due to miniaturization of electronics

CubeSats offer a compelling pathway towards lowering the cost of interplanetary exploration missions thanks to their low mass and volume. This has been possible due to miniaturization of electronics and sensors and increased efficiency of photovoltaics. Interplanetary communication using radio signals requires large parabolic antennas on the spacecraft and this often exceeds the total volume of CubeSat spacecraft. Mechanical deployable antennas have been proposed that would unfurl to form a large parabolic dish. These antennas much like an umbrella has many mechanical moving parts, are complex and are prone to jamming. An alternative are inflatables, due to their tenfold savings in mass, large surface area and very high packing efficiency of 20:1. The present work describes the process of designing and building inflatable parabolic reflectors for small satellite radio communications in the X band.

Tests show these inflatable reflectors to provide significantly higher gain characteristics as compared to conventional antennas. This would lead to much higher data rates from low earth orbits and would provide enabling communication capabilities for small satellites in deeper space. This technology is critical to lowering costs of small satellites while enhancing their capabilities.

Principle design challenges with inflatable membranes are maintaining accurate desired shape, reliable deployment mechanism and outer space environment protection. The present work tackles each of the mentioned challenges and provides an

understanding towards future work. In the course of our experimentation we have been able to address these challenges using building techniques that evolved out of a matured understanding of the inflation process.

Our design is based on low cost chemical sublimates as inflation substances that use a simple mechanism for inflation. To improve the reliability of the inflated shape, we use UV radiation hardened polymer support structures. The novelty of the design lies in its simplicity, low cost and high reliability. The design and development work provides an understanding towards extending these concepts to much larger deployable structures such as solar sails, inflatable truss structures for orbit servicing and large surface area inflatables for deceleration from hypersonic speeds when re-entering the atmosphere.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Crystalline and amorphous metallic membranes for hydrogen separation

Description

In the United States, 95% of the industrially produced hydrogen is from natural gas reforming. Membrane-based techniques offer great potential for energy efficient hydrogen separations. Pd77Ag23 is the bench-mark metallic

In the United States, 95% of the industrially produced hydrogen is from natural gas reforming. Membrane-based techniques offer great potential for energy efficient hydrogen separations. Pd77Ag23 is the bench-mark metallic membrane material for hydrogen separation at high temperatures. However, the high cost of palladium limits widespread application. Amorphous metals with lower cost elements are one alternative to replace palladium-based membranes. The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate the potential of binary and ternary amorphous metallic membranes for hydrogen separation. First, as a benchmark, the influence of surface state of Pd77Ag23 crystalline metallic membranes on the hydrogen permeability was investigated. Second, the hydrogen permeability, thermal stability and mechanical properties of Cu-Zr and Ni60Nb35M5 (M=Sn, Ti and Zr) amorphous metallic membranes was evaluated.

Different heat treatments were applied to commercial Pd77Ag23 membranes to promote surface segregation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates that the membrane surface composition changed after heat treatment. The surface area of all membranes increased after heat treatment. The higher the surface Pd/(Pd+Ag) ratio, the higher the hydrogen permeability. Surface carbon removal and surface area increase cannot explain the observed permeability differences.

Previous computational modeling predicted that Cu54Zr46 would have high hydrogen permeability. Amorphous metallic Cu-Zr (Zr=37, 54, 60 at. %) membranes were synthesized and investigated. The surface oxides may result in the lower experimental hydrogen permeability lower than that predicted by the simulations. The permeability decrease indicates that the Cu-Zr alloys crystallized in less than two hours during the test (performed at 300 °C) at temperatures below the glass transition temperature. This original experimental results show that thermal stability of amorphous metallic membranes is critical for hydrogen separation applications.

The hydrogen permeability of Ni60Nb35M5 (M=Sn, Ti and Zr) amorphous metallic membranes was investigated. Nanoindentation shows that the Young’s modulus and hardness increased after hydrogen permeability test. The structure is maintained amorphous after 24 hours of hydrogen permeability testing at 400°C. The maximum hydrogen permeability of three alloys is 10-10 mol m-1 s-1 Pa-0.5. Though these alloys exhibited a slight hydrogen permeability decreased during the test, the amorphous metallic membranes were thermally stable and did not crystalize.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Development and characterization of chemical resistant water separation composite membranes by using impermeable polymer matrix

Description

Water recovery from impaired sources, such as reclaimed wastewater, brackish groundwater, and ocean water, is imperative as freshwater resources are under great pressure. Complete reuse of urine wastewater is also

Water recovery from impaired sources, such as reclaimed wastewater, brackish groundwater, and ocean water, is imperative as freshwater resources are under great pressure. Complete reuse of urine wastewater is also necessary to sustain life on space exploration missions of greater than one year’s duration. Currently, the Water Recovery System (WRS) used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) shuttles recovers only 70% of generated wastewater.1 Current osmotic processes show high capability to increase water recovery from wastewater. However, commercial reverse osmosis (RO) membranes rapidly degrade when exposed to pretreated urine-containing wastewater. Also, non-ionic small molecules substances (i.e., urea) are very poorly rejected by commercial RO membranes.

In this study, an innovative composite membrane that integrates water-selective molecular sieve particles into a liquid-barrier chemically resistant polymer film is synthetized. This plan manipulates distinctive aspects of the two materials used to create the membranes: (1) the innate permeation and selectivity of the molecular sieves, and (2) the decay-resistant, versatile, and mechanical strength of the liquid-barrier polymer support matrix.

To synthesize the membrane, Linde Type A (LTA) zeolite particles are anchored to the porous substrate, producing a single layer of zeolite particles capable of transporting water through the membrane. Thereafter, coating the chemically resistant latex polymer filled the space between zeolites. Finally, excess polymer was etched from the surface to expose the zeolites to the feed solution. The completed membranes were tested in reverse osmosis mode with deionized water, sodium chloride, and rhodamine solutions to determine the suitability for water recovery.

The main distinguishing characteristics of the new membrane design compared with current composite membrane include: (1) the use of an impermeable polymer broadens the range of chemical resistant polymers that can be used as the polymer matrix; (2) the use of zeolite particles with specific pore size insures the high rejection of the neutral molecules since water is transported through the zeolite rather than the polymer; (3) the use of latex dispersions, environmentally friendly water based-solutions, as the polymer matrix shares the qualities of low volatile organic compound, low cost, and non- toxicity.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Pervaporation of ethanol/water mixtures using PDMS mixed matrix membranes

Description

ABSTRACT Among the major applications of pervaporation membrane processes, organic separation from organic/water mixtures is becoming increasingly important. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is among the most interesting and promising membranes and

ABSTRACT Among the major applications of pervaporation membrane processes, organic separation from organic/water mixtures is becoming increasingly important. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is among the most interesting and promising membranes and has been extensively investigated. PDMS is an "organicelastomeric material, often referred to as "silicone rubber", exhibiting excellent film-forming ability, thermal stability, chemical and physiological inertness. In this thesis incorporation of nanosilicalite-1 particles into a PDMS matrix and effect of particle loading and temperature variation on membrane performance was studied. A strong influence of zeolite was found on the pervaporation of alcohol/water mixtures using filled PDMS membranes. The mixed matrix membrane showed high separation factor at higher zeolite loading and high flux at higher temperature.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Synthesis and characterization of ZIF-71/PDMS membranes for biofuel separation

Description

Membranes are a key part of pervaporation processes, which is generally a more

efficient process for selective removal of alcohol from water than distillation. It is

necessary that the membranes have high

Membranes are a key part of pervaporation processes, which is generally a more

efficient process for selective removal of alcohol from water than distillation. It is

necessary that the membranes have high alcohol permeabilities and selectivities.

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have

demonstrated very promising results. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-71 (ZIF-71)

demonstrated promising alcohol separation abilities. In this dissertation, we present

fundamental studies on the synthesis of ZIF-71/PDMS MMMs.

Free-standing ZIF-71/ PDMS membranes with 0, 5, 25 and 40 wt % ZIF-71

loadings were prepared and the pervaporation separation for ethanol and 1-butanol from

water was measured. ZIF-71/PDMS MMMs were formed through addition cure and

condensation cure methods. Addition cure method was not compatible with ZIF-71

resulting in membranes with poor mechanical properties, while the condensation cure

method resulted in membranes with good mechanical properties. The 40 wt % ZIF-71

loading PDMS nanocomposite membranes achieved a maximum ethanol/water selectivity

of 0.81 ± 0.04 selectivity and maximum 1-butnaol/water selectivity of 5.64 ± 0.15.

The effects of synthesis time, temperature, and reactant ratio on ZIF-71 particle

size and the effect of particle size on membrane performance were studied. Temperature

had the greatest effect on ZIF-71 particle size as the synthesis temperature varied from -

20 to 35 ºC. The ZIF-71 synthesized had particle diameters ranging from 150 nm to 1

μm. ZIF-71 particle size is critical in ZIF-71/PDMS composite membrane performance

for alcohol removal from water through pervaporation. The membranes made with

micron sized ZIF-71 particles showed higher alcohol/water selectivity than those with

smaller particles. Both alcohol and water permeability increased when larger sized ZIF-

71 particles were incorporated.

ZIF-71 particles were modified with four ligands through solvent assisted linker

exchange (SALE) method: benzimidazole (BIM), 5-methylbenzimidazole (MBIM), 5,6-

dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBIM) and 4-Phenylimidazole (PI). The morphology of ZIF-

71 were maintained after the modification. ZIF-71/PDMS composite membranes with 25

wt% loading modified ZIF-71 particles were made for alcohol/water separation. Better

particle dispersion in PDMS polymer matrix was observed with the ligand modified ZIFs.

For both ethanol/water and 1-butanol/water separations, the alcohol permeability and

alcohol/water selectivity were lowered after the ZIF-71 ligand exchange reaction.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Flux performance and silver leaching from in-situ synthesized silver nanoparticle treated reverse osmosis point of use membranes

Description

Drinking water filtration using reverse osmosis (RO) membranes effectively removes salts and most other inorganic, organic, and microbial pollutants. RO technologies are utilized at both the municipal and residential scale.

Drinking water filtration using reverse osmosis (RO) membranes effectively removes salts and most other inorganic, organic, and microbial pollutants. RO technologies are utilized at both the municipal and residential scale. The formation of biofilms on RO membranes reduces water flux and increases energy consumption. The research conducted for this thesis involves In-Situ coating of silver, a known biocide, on the surface of RO membranes. This research was adapted from a protocol developed for coating flat sheet membranes with silver nanoparticles, and scaled up into spiral-wound membranes that are commonly used at the residential scale in point-of-use (POU) filtration systems. Performance analyses of the silver-coated spiral-wound were conducted in a mobile drinking water treatment system fitted with two POU units for comparison. Five month-long analyses were performed, including a deployment of the mobile system. In addition to flux, salt rejection, and other water quality analyses, additional membrane characterization tests were conducted on pristine and silver-coated membranes.

For flat sheet membranes coated with silver, the surface charge remained negative and contact angle remained below 90. Scaling up to spiral-wound RO membrane configuration was successful, with an average silver-loading of 1.93 g-Ag/cm2. Results showed the flux of water through the membrane ranged from 8 to 13 liters/m2*hr. (LMH) operating at 25% recovery during long-term of operation. The flux was initially decreased due to the silver coating, but no statistically significant differences were observed after 14 days of operation (P < 0.05). The salt rejection was also not effected due to the silver coating (P < 0.05). While 98% of silver was released during long-term studies, the silver release from the spiral-wound membrane was consistently below the secondary MCL of 100 ppb established by the EPA, and was consistently below 5 ppb after two hours of operation. Microbial assays in the form of heterotrophic plate counts suggested there was no statistically significant difference in the prevention of biofouling formation due to the silver coating (P < 0.05). In addition to performance tests and membrane characterizations, a remote data acquisition system was configured to remotely monitor performance and water quality parameters in the mobile system.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Experimental and modeling study on pervaporation separation of ethanol and water mixture by polycrystalline MFI zeolite membranes

Description

While the solution diffusion model and pore flow model dominate pervaporation transport mechanism modeling, a new model combining the solution diffusion and viscous flow models is validated using membranes with

While the solution diffusion model and pore flow model dominate pervaporation transport mechanism modeling, a new model combining the solution diffusion and viscous flow models is validated using membranes with large scale defects exceeding 2 nm in diameter. A range of membranes was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine quality and phase characteristics. MFI zeolite membranes of He/SF6 pure gas permeation ideal selectivities of 25, 15, and 3 for good, medium, and poor quality membranes were subjected to liquid pervaporations with a 5% ethanol in water feed, by weight. Feed pressure was increased from 1 to 5 atm, to validate existence of viscous flow in the defects. Component molar flux is modeled using the solution diffusion model and the viscous flow model, via J_i=F_i (γ_i x_i P_i^sat )+(ρ )/M_W ∅/μ_ij x_i P_h. A negative coefficient of thermal expansion is observed as permeances drop as a function of temperature in all three membranes, where ϕ=((ϵr_p^2)/τ∆x). Experimental parameter ϕ increased as a function of temperature, and increased with decreasing membrane quality. This further proves that zeolitic pores are shrinking in one direction, and pulling intercrystalline voids larger, increasing the (ϵ/τ) ratio. Permiabilities of the bad, medium, and good quality membrane also decreased over time for both ethanol and water, meaning that fundamental membrane characteristics changed as a function of temperature. To conclude, the model reasonably fits empirical data reasonably well.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016