Matching Items (8)

Design, Optimization, and Applications of Wearable IoT Devices

Description

Movement disorders are becoming one of the leading causes of functional disability due to aging populations and extended life expectancy. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation currently depend on the behavior observed

Movement disorders are becoming one of the leading causes of functional disability due to aging populations and extended life expectancy. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation currently depend on the behavior observed in a clinical environment. After the patient leaves the clinic, there is no standard approach to continuously monitor the patient and report potential problems. Furthermore, self-recording is inconvenient and unreliable. To address these challenges, wearable health monitoring is emerging as an effective way to augment clinical care for movement disorders.

Wearable devices are being used in many health, fitness, and activity monitoring applications. However, their widespread adoption has been hindered by several adaptation and technical challenges. First, conventional rigid devices are uncomfortable to wear for long periods. Second, wearable devices must operate under very low-energy budgets due to their small battery capacities. Small batteries create a need for frequent recharging, which in turn leads users to stop using them. Third, the usefulness of wearable devices must be demonstrated through high impact applications such that users can get value out of them.

This dissertation presents solutions to solving the challenges faced by wearable devices. First, it presents an open-source hardware/software platform for wearable health monitoring. The proposed platform uses flexible hybrid electronics to enable devices that conform to the shape of the user’s body. Second, it proposes an algorithm to enable recharge-free operation of wearable devices that harvest energy from the environment. The proposed solution maximizes the performance of the wearable device under minimum energy constraints. The results of the proposed algorithm are, on average, within 3% of the optimal solution computed offline. Third, a comprehensive framework for human activity recognition (HAR), one of the first steps towards a solution for movement disorders is presented. It starts with an online learning framework for HAR. Experiments on a low power IoT device (TI-CC2650 MCU) with twenty-two users show 95% accuracy in identifying seven activities and their transitions with less than 12.5 mW power consumption. The online learning framework is accompanied by a transfer learning approach for HAR that determines the number of neural network layers to transfer among uses to enable efficient online learning. Next, a technique to co-optimize the accuracy and active time of wearable applications by utilizing multiple design points with different energy-accuracy trade-offs is presented. The proposed technique switches between the design points at runtime to maximize a generalized objective function under tight harvested energy budget constraints. Finally, we present the first ultra-low-energy hardware accelerator that makes it practical to perform HAR on energy harvested from wearable devices. The accelerator consumes 22.4 microjoules per operation using a commercial 65 nm technology. In summary, the solutions presented in this dissertation can enable the wider adoption of wearable devices.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Kinematic and dynamical analysis techniques for human movement analysis from portable sensing devices

Description

Today's world is seeing a rapid technological advancement in various fields, having access to faster computers and better sensing devices. With such advancements, the task of recognizing human activities has

Today's world is seeing a rapid technological advancement in various fields, having access to faster computers and better sensing devices. With such advancements, the task of recognizing human activities has been acknowledged as an important problem, with a wide range of applications such as surveillance, health monitoring and animation. Traditional approaches to dynamical modeling have included linear and nonlinear methods with their respective drawbacks. An alternative idea I propose is the use of descriptors of the shape of the dynamical attractor as a feature representation for quantification of nature of dynamics. The framework has two main advantages over traditional approaches: a) representation of the dynamical system is derived directly from the observational data, without any inherent assumptions, and b) the proposed features show stability under different time-series lengths where traditional dynamical invariants fail.

Approximately 1\% of the total world population are stroke survivors, making it the most common neurological disorder. This increasing demand for rehabilitation facilities has been seen as a significant healthcare problem worldwide. The laborious and expensive process of visual monitoring by physical therapists has motivated my research to invent novel strategies to supplement therapy received in hospital in a home-setting. In this direction, I propose a general framework for tuning component-level kinematic features using therapists’ overall impressions of movement quality, in the context of a Home-based Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (HAMRR) system.

The rapid technological advancements in computing and sensing has resulted in large amounts of data which requires powerful tools to analyze. In the recent past, topological data analysis methods have been investigated in various communities, and the work by Carlsson establishes that persistent homology can be used as a powerful topological data analysis approach for effectively analyzing large datasets. I have explored suitable topological data analysis methods and propose a framework for human activity analysis utilizing the same for applications such as action recognition.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Human Activity Recognition and Control of Wearable Robots

Description

Wearable robotics has gained huge popularity in recent years due to its wide applications in rehabilitation, military, and industrial fields. The weakness of the skeletal muscles in the aging population

Wearable robotics has gained huge popularity in recent years due to its wide applications in rehabilitation, military, and industrial fields. The weakness of the skeletal muscles in the aging population and neurological injuries such as stroke and spinal cord injuries seriously limit the abilities of these individuals to perform daily activities. Therefore, there is an increasing attention in the development of wearable robots to assist the elderly and patients with disabilities for motion assistance and rehabilitation. In military and industrial sectors, wearable robots can increase the productivity of workers and soldiers. It is important for the wearable robots to maintain smooth interaction with the user while evolving in complex environments with minimum effort from the user. Therefore, the recognition of the user's activities such as walking or jogging in real time becomes essential to provide appropriate assistance based on the activity.

This dissertation proposes two real-time human activity recognition algorithms intelligent fuzzy inference (IFI) algorithm and Amplitude omega ($A \omega$) algorithm to identify the human activities, i.e., stationary and locomotion activities. The IFI algorithm uses knee angle and ground contact forces (GCFs) measurements from four inertial measurement units (IMUs) and a pair of smart shoes. Whereas, the $A \omega$ algorithm is based on thigh angle measurements from a single IMU.

This dissertation also attempts to address the problem of online tuning of virtual impedance for an assistive robot based on real-time gait and activity measurement data to personalize the assistance for different users. An automatic impedance tuning (AIT) approach is presented for a knee assistive device (KAD) in which the IFI algorithm is used for real-time activity measurements. This dissertation also proposes an adaptive oscillator method known as amplitude omega adaptive oscillator ($A\omega AO$) method for HeSA (hip exoskeleton for superior augmentation) to provide bilateral hip assistance during human locomotion activities. The $A \omega$ algorithm is integrated into the adaptive oscillator method to make the approach robust for different locomotion activities. Experiments are performed on healthy subjects to validate the efficacy of the human activities recognition algorithms and control strategies proposed in this dissertation. Both the activity recognition algorithms exhibited higher classification accuracy with less update time. The results of AIT demonstrated that the KAD assistive torque was smoother and EMG signal of Vastus Medialis is reduced, compared to constant impedance and finite state machine approaches. The $A\omega AO$ method showed real-time learning of the locomotion activities signals for three healthy subjects while wearing HeSA. To understand the influence of the assistive devices on the inherent dynamic gait stability of the human, stability analysis is performed. For this, the stability metrics derived from dynamical systems theory are used to evaluate unilateral knee assistance applied to the healthy participants.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Geometry aware compressive analysis of human activities: application in a smart phone platform

Description

Continuous monitoring of sensor data from smart phones to identify human activities and gestures, puts a heavy load on the smart phone's power consumption. In this research study, the non-Euclidean

Continuous monitoring of sensor data from smart phones to identify human activities and gestures, puts a heavy load on the smart phone's power consumption. In this research study, the non-Euclidean geometry of the rich sensor data obtained from the user's smart phone is utilized to perform compressive analysis and efficient classification of human activities by employing machine learning techniques. We are interested in the generalization of classical tools for signal approximation to newer spaces, such as rotation data, which is best studied in a non-Euclidean setting, and its application to activity analysis. Attributing to the non-linear nature of the rotation data space, which involve a heavy overload on the smart phone's processor and memory as opposed to feature extraction on the Euclidean space, indexing and compaction of the acquired sensor data is performed prior to feature extraction, to reduce CPU overhead and thereby increase the lifetime of the battery with a little loss in recognition accuracy of the activities. The sensor data represented as unit quaternions, is a more intrinsic representation of the orientation of smart phone compared to Euler angles (which suffers from Gimbal lock problem) or the computationally intensive rotation matrices. Classification algorithms are employed to classify these manifold sequences in the non-Euclidean space. By performing customized indexing (using K-means algorithm) of the evolved manifold sequences before feature extraction, considerable energy savings is achieved in terms of smart phone's battery life.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Feature extraction from compressive cameras with application to activity recognition

Description

Recent advances in camera architectures and associated mathematical representations now enable compressive acquisition of images and videos at low data-rates. While most computer vision applications of today are composed of

Recent advances in camera architectures and associated mathematical representations now enable compressive acquisition of images and videos at low data-rates. While most computer vision applications of today are composed of conventional cameras, which collect a large amount redundant data and power hungry embedded systems, which compress the collected data for further processing, compressive cameras offer the advantage of direct acquisition of data in compressed domain and hence readily promise to find applicability in computer vision, particularly in environments hampered by limited communication bandwidths. However, despite the significant progress in theory and methods of compressive sensing, little headway has been made in developing systems for such applications by exploiting the merits of compressive sensing. In such a setting, we consider the problem of activity recognition, which is an important inference problem in many security and surveillance applications. Since all successful activity recognition systems involve detection of human, followed by recognition, a potential fully functioning system motivated by compressive camera would involve the tracking of human, which requires the reconstruction of atleast the initial few frames to detect the human. Once the human is tracked, the recognition part of the system requires only the features to be extracted from the tracked sequences, which can be the reconstructed images or the compressed measurements of such sequences. However, it is desirable in resource constrained environments that these features be extracted from the compressive measurements without reconstruction. Motivated by this, in this thesis, we propose a framework for understanding activities as a non-linear dynamical system, and propose a robust, generalizable feature that can be extracted directly from the compressed measurements without reconstructing the original video frames. The proposed feature is termed recurrence texture and is motivated from recurrence analysis of non-linear dynamical systems. We show that it is possible to obtain discriminative features directly from the compressed stream and show its utility in recognition of activities at very low data rates.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Low complexity differential geometric computations with applications to human activity analysis

Description

In this thesis, we consider the problem of fast and efficient indexing techniques for time sequences which evolve on manifold-valued spaces. Using manifolds is a convenient way to work with

In this thesis, we consider the problem of fast and efficient indexing techniques for time sequences which evolve on manifold-valued spaces. Using manifolds is a convenient way to work with complex features that often do not live in Euclidean spaces. However, computing standard notions of geodesic distance, mean etc. can get very involved due to the underlying non-linearity associated with the space. As a result a complex task such as manifold sequence matching would require very large number of computations making it hard to use in practice. We believe that one can device smart approximation algorithms for several classes of such problems which take into account the geometry of the manifold and maintain the favorable properties of the exact approach. This problem has several applications in areas of human activity discovery and recognition, where several features and representations are naturally studied in a non-Euclidean setting. We propose a novel solution to the problem of indexing manifold-valued sequences by proposing an intrinsic approach to map sequences to a symbolic representation. This is shown to enable the deployment of fast and accurate algorithms for activity recognition, motif discovery, and anomaly detection. Toward this end, we present generalizations of key concepts of piece-wise aggregation and symbolic approximation for the case of non-Euclidean manifolds. Experiments show that one can replace expensive geodesic computations with much faster symbolic computations with little loss of accuracy in activity recognition and discovery applications. The proposed methods are ideally suited for real-time systems and resource constrained scenarios.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Real time estimation and prediction of similarity in human activity using factor oracle algorithm

Description

The human motion is defined as an amalgamation of several physical traits such as bipedal locomotion, posture and manual dexterity, and mental expectation. In addition to the “positive” body form

The human motion is defined as an amalgamation of several physical traits such as bipedal locomotion, posture and manual dexterity, and mental expectation. In addition to the “positive” body form defined by these traits, casting light on the body produces a “negative” of the body: its shadow. We often interchangeably use with silhouettes in the place of shadow to emphasize indifference to interior features. In a manner of speaking, the shadow is an alter ego that imitates the individual.

The principal value of shadow is its non-invasive behaviour of reflecting precisely the actions of the individual it is attached to. Nonetheless we can still think of the body’s shadow not as the body but its alter ego.

Based on this premise, my thesis creates an experiential system that extracts the data related to the contour of your human shape and gives it a texture and life of its own, so as to emulate your movements and postures, and to be your extension. In technical terms, my thesis extracts abstraction from a pre-indexed database that could be generated from an offline data set or in real time to complement these actions of a user in front of a low-cost optical motion capture device like the Microsoft Kinect. This notion could be the system’s interpretation of the action which creates modularized art through the abstraction’s ‘similarity’ to the live action.

Through my research, I have developed a stable system that tackles various connotations associated with shadows and the need to determine the ideal features that contribute to the relevance of the actions performed. The implication of Factor Oracle [3] pattern interpretation is tested with a feature bin of videos. The system also is flexible towards several methods of Nearest Neighbours searches and a machine learning module to derive the same output. The overall purpose is to establish this in real time and provide a constant feedback to the user. This can be expanded to handle larger dynamic data.

In addition to estimating human actions, my thesis best tries to test various Nearest Neighbour search methods in real time depending upon the data stream. This provides a basis to understand varying parameters that complement human activity recognition and feature matching in real time.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Classifying everyday activity through label propagation with sparse training data

Description

We solve the problem of activity verification in the context of sustainability. Activity verification is the process of proving the user assertions pertaining to a certain activity performed by the

We solve the problem of activity verification in the context of sustainability. Activity verification is the process of proving the user assertions pertaining to a certain activity performed by the user. Our motivation lies in incentivizing the user for engaging in sustainable activities like taking public transport or recycling. Such incentivization schemes require the system to verify the claim made by the user. The system verifies these claims by analyzing the supporting evidence captured by the user while performing the activity. The proliferation of portable smart-phones in the past few years has provided us with a ubiquitous and relatively cheap platform, having multiple sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, microphone etc. to capture this evidence data in-situ. In this research, we investigate the supervised and semi-supervised learning techniques for activity verification. Both these techniques make use the data set constructed using the evidence submitted by the user. Supervised learning makes use of annotated evidence data to build a function to predict the class labels of the unlabeled data points. The evidence data captured can be either unimodal or multimodal in nature. We use the accelerometer data as evidence for transportation mode verification and image data as evidence for recycling verification. After training the system, we achieve maximum accuracy of 94% when classifying the transport mode and 81% when detecting recycle activity. In the case of recycle verification, we could improve the classification accuracy by asking the user for more evidence. We present some techniques to ask the user for the next best piece of evidence that maximizes the probability of classification. Using these techniques for detecting recycle activity, the accuracy increases to 93%. The major disadvantage of using supervised models is that it requires extensive annotated training data, which expensive to collect. Due to the limited training data, we look at the graph based inductive semi-supervised learning methods to propagate the labels among the unlabeled samples. In the semi-supervised approach, we represent each instance in the data set as a node in the graph. Since it is a complete graph, edges interconnect these nodes, with each edge having some weight representing the similarity between the points. We propagate the labels in this graph, based on the proximity of the data points to the labeled nodes. We estimate the performance of these algorithms by measuring how close the probability distribution of the data after label propagation is to the probability distribution of the ground truth data. Since labeling has a cost associated with it, in this thesis we propose two algorithms that help us in selecting minimum number of labeled points to propagate the labels accurately. Our proposed algorithm achieves a maximum of 73% increase in performance when compared to the baseline algorithm.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013