Matching Items (6)

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Estimation of subspace occupancy

Description

The ability to identify unoccupied resources in the radio spectrum is a key capability for opportunistic users in a cognitive radio environment. This paper draws upon and extends geometrically based

The ability to identify unoccupied resources in the radio spectrum is a key capability for opportunistic users in a cognitive radio environment. This paper draws upon and extends geometrically based ideas in statistical signal processing to develop estimators for the rank and the occupied subspace in a multi-user environment from multiple temporal samples of the signal received at a single antenna. These estimators enable identification of resources, such as the orthogonal complement of the occupied subspace, that may be exploitable by an opportunistic user. This concept is supported by simulations showing the estimation of the number of users in a simple CDMA system using a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate for the rank. It was found that with suitable parameters, such as high SNR, sufficient number of time epochs and codes of appropriate length, the number of users could be correctly estimated using the MAP estimator even when the noise variance is unknown. Additionally, the process of identifying the maximum likelihood estimate of the orthogonal projector onto the unoccupied subspace is discussed.

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  • 2014

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Optimal power allocation and scheduling of real-time data for cognitive radios

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In this dissertation, I propose potential techniques to improve the quality-of-service (QoS) of real-time applications in cognitive radio (CR) systems. Unlike best-effort applications, real-time applications, such as audio and video,

In this dissertation, I propose potential techniques to improve the quality-of-service (QoS) of real-time applications in cognitive radio (CR) systems. Unlike best-effort applications, real-time applications, such as audio and video, have a QoS that need to be met. There are two different frameworks that are used to study the QoS in the literature, namely, the average-delay and the hard-deadline frameworks. In the former, the scheduling algorithm has to guarantee that the packet's average delay is below a prespecified threshold while the latter imposes a hard deadline on each packet in the system. In this dissertation, I present joint power allocation and scheduling algorithms for each framework and show their applications in CR systems which are known to have strict power limitations so as to protect the licensed users from interference.

A common aspect of the two frameworks is the packet service time. Thus, the effect of multiple channels on the service time is studied first. The problem is formulated as an optimal stopping rule problem where it is required to decide at which channel the SU should stop sensing and begin transmission. I provide a closed-form expression for this optimal stopping rule and the optimal transmission power of secondary user (SU).

The average-delay framework is then presented in a single CR channel system with a base station (BS) that schedules the SUs to minimize the average delay while protecting the primary users (PUs) from harmful interference. One of the contributions of the proposed algorithm is its suitability for heterogeneous-channels systems where users with statistically low channel quality suffer worse delay performances. The proposed algorithm guarantees the prespecified delay performance to each SU without violating the PU's interference constraint.

Finally, in the hard-deadline framework, I propose three algorithms that maximize the system's throughput while guaranteeing the required percentage of packets to be transmitted by their deadlines. The proposed algorithms work in heterogeneous systems where the BS is serving different types of users having real-time (RT) data and non-real-time (NRT) data. I show that two of the proposed algorithms have the low complexity where the power policies of both the RT and NRT users are in closed-form expressions and a low-complexity scheduler.

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  • 2016

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Estimation of cost-based channel occupancy in cognitive radio using sequential Monte Carlo methods

Description

Dynamic channel selection in cognitive radio consists of two main phases. The first phase is spectrum sensing, during which the channels that are occupied by the primary users are detected.

Dynamic channel selection in cognitive radio consists of two main phases. The first phase is spectrum sensing, during which the channels that are occupied by the primary users are detected. The second phase is channel selection, during which the state of the channel to be used by the secondary user is estimated. The existing cognitive radio channel selection literature assumes perfect spectrum sensing. However, this assumption becomes problematic as the noise in the channels increases, resulting in high probability of false alarm and high probability of missed detection. This thesis proposes a solution to this problem by incorporating the estimated state of channel occupancy into a selection cost function. The problem of optimal single-channel selection in cognitive radio is considered. A unique approach to the channel selection problem is proposed which consists of first using a particle filter to estimate the state of channel occupancy and then using the estimated state with a cost function to select a single channel for transmission. The selection cost function provides a means of assessing the various combinations of unoccupied channels in terms of desirability. By minimizing the expected selection cost function over all possible channel occupancy combinations, the optimal hypothesis which identifies the optimal single channel is obtained. Several variations of the proposed cost-based channel selection approach are discussed and simulated in a variety of environments, ranging from low to high number of primary user channels, low to high levels of signal-to-noise ratios, and low to high levels of primary user traffic.

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  • 2014

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Multi-user diversity systems with application to cognitive radio

Description

This thesis aims to investigate the capacity and bit error rate (BER) performance of multi-user diversity systems with random number of users and considers its application to cognitive radio systems.

This thesis aims to investigate the capacity and bit error rate (BER) performance of multi-user diversity systems with random number of users and considers its application to cognitive radio systems. Ergodic capacity, normalized capacity, outage capacity, and average bit error rate metrics are studied. It has been found that the randomization of the number of users will reduce the ergodic capacity. A stochastic ordering framework is adopted to order user distributions, for example, Laplace transform ordering. The ergodic capacity under different user distributions will follow their corresponding Laplace transform order. The scaling law of ergodic capacity with mean number of users under Poisson and negative binomial user distributions are studied for large mean number of users and these two random distributions are ordered in Laplace transform ordering sense. The ergodic capacity per user is defined and is shown to increase when the total number of users is randomized, which is the opposite to the case of unnormalized ergodic capacity metric. Outage probability under slow fading is also considered and shown to decrease when the total number of users is randomized. The bit error rate (BER) in a general multi-user diversity system has a completely monotonic derivative, which implies that, according to the Jensen's inequality, the randomization of the total number of users will decrease the average BER performance. The special case of Poisson number of users and Rayleigh fading is studied. Combining with the knowledge of regular variation, the average BER is shown to achieve tightness in the Jensen's inequality. This is followed by the extension to the negative binomial number of users, for which the BER is derived and shown to be decreasing in the number of users. A single primary user cognitive radio system with multi-user diversity at the secondary users is proposed. Comparing to the general multi-user diversity system, there exists an interference constraint between secondary and primary users, which is independent of the secondary users' transmission. The secondary user with high- est transmitted SNR which also satisfies the interference constraint is selected to communicate. The active number of secondary users is a binomial random variable. This is then followed by a derivation of the scaling law of the ergodic capacity with mean number of users and the closed form expression of average BER under this situation. The ergodic capacity under binomial user distribution is shown to outperform the Poisson case. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to supplement our analytical results and compare the performance of different user distributions.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Adapting sensing and transmission times to improve secondary user throughput in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

Description

Cognitive Radios (CR) are designed to dynamically reconfigure their transmission and/or reception parameters to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. With a rapidly fluctuating radio environment, spectrum management becomes crucial for cognitive

Cognitive Radios (CR) are designed to dynamically reconfigure their transmission and/or reception parameters to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. With a rapidly fluctuating radio environment, spectrum management becomes crucial for cognitive radios. In a Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN) setting, the sensing and transmission times of the cognitive radio play a more important role because of the decentralized nature of the network. They have a direct impact on the throughput. Due to the tradeoff between throughput and the sensing time, finding optimal values for sensing time and transmission time is difficult. In this thesis, a method is proposed to improve the throughput of a CRAHN by dynamically changing the sensing and transmission times. To simulate the CRAHN setting, ns-2, the network simulator with an extension for CRAHN is used. The CRAHN extension module implements the required Primary User (PU) and Secondary User (SU) and other CR functionalities to simulate a realistic CRAHN scenario. First, this work presents a detailed analysis of various CR parameters, their interactions, their individual contributions to the throughput to understand how they affect the transmissions in the network. Based on the results of this analysis, changes to the system model in the CRAHN extension are proposed. Instantaneous throughput of the network is introduced in the new model, which helps to determine how the parameters should adapt based on the current throughput. Along with instantaneous throughput, checks are done for interference with the PUs and their transmission power, before modifying these CR parameters. Simulation results demonstrate that the throughput of the CRAHN with the adaptive sensing and transmission times is significantly higher as compared to that of non-adaptive parameters.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Cognitive communications in white space: opportunistic scheduling, spectrum shaping and delay analysis

Description

A unique feature, yet a challenge, in cognitive radio (CR) networks is the user hierarchy: secondary users (SU) wishing for data transmission must defer in the presence of active primary

A unique feature, yet a challenge, in cognitive radio (CR) networks is the user hierarchy: secondary users (SU) wishing for data transmission must defer in the presence of active primary users (PUs), whose priority to channel access is strictly higher.Under a common thread of characterizing and improving Quality of Service (QoS) for the SUs, this dissertation is progressively organized under two main thrusts: the first thrust focuses on SU's throughput by exploiting the underlying properties of the PU spectrum to perform effective scheduling algorithms; and the second thrust aims at another important QoS performance of the SUs, namely delay, subject to the impact of PUs' activities, and proposes enhancement and control mechanisms. More specifically, in the first thrust, opportunistic spectrum scheduling for SU is first considered by jointly exploiting the memory in PU's occupancy and channel fading. In particular, the underexplored scenario where PU occupancy presents a {long} temporal memory is taken into consideration. By casting the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, a set of {multi-tier} tradeoffs are quantified and illustrated. Next, a spectrum shaping framework is proposed by leveraging network coding as a {spectrum shaper} on the PU's traffic. Such shaping effect brings in predictability of the primary spectrum, which is utilized by the SUs to carry out adaptive channel sensing by prioritizing channel access order, and hence significantly improve their throughput. On the other hand, such predictability can make wireless channels more susceptible to jamming attacks. As a result, caution must be taken in designing wireless systems to balance the throughput and the jamming-resistant capability. The second thrust turns attention to an equally important performance metric, i.e., delay performance. Specifically, queueing delay analysis is conducted for SUs employing random access over the PU channels. Fluid approximation is taken and Poisson driven stochastic differential equations are applied to characterize the moments of the SUs' steady-state queueing delay. Then, dynamic packet generation control mechanisms are developed to meet the given delay requirements for SUs.

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Date Created
  • 2012