Matching Items (3)

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Spray-Deposited Oxides for Applications in Solar Cells

Description

Photovoltaics (PV) is one of the promising options for maintaining sustainable energy supply because it is environmentally friendly, a non-polluting and low-maintenance energy source. Despite the many advantages of PV,

Photovoltaics (PV) is one of the promising options for maintaining sustainable energy supply because it is environmentally friendly, a non-polluting and low-maintenance energy source. Despite the many advantages of PV, solar energy currently accounts for only 1% of the global energy portfolio for electricity generation. This is because the cost of electricity from PV remains about a factor of two higher than the fossil fuel (10¢/kWh). Widely-used commercial methods employed to generate PV energy, such as silicon or thin film-based technologies, are still expensive as they are processed through vacuum-based techniques. Therefore, it is desirable to find an alternative method that is open-air and continuous process for the mass production of solar cells.

The objective of the research in this thesis is to develop low-cost spray pyrolysis technique to synthesize oxides thin films for applications in solar cells. Chapter 4 and 5 discuss spray-deposited dielectric oxides for their applications in Si solar cells. In Chapter 4, a successful deposition of Al2O3 is demonstrated using water as the solvent which ensures a lower cost and safer process environment. Optical, electrical, and structural properties of spray-deposited Al2O3 are investigated and compared to the industrial standard Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Al2O3/Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) SiNx stack, to reveal the suitability of spray-deposited Al2O3 for rear passivation and optical trapping in p-type Si Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell (PERC) solar cells. In Chapter 5, The possibility of using low-cost spray-deposited ZrO2 as the antireflection coating for Si solar cells is investigated. Optical, electrical and structural properties of spray-deposited ZrO2 films are studied and compared to the industrial standard antireflection coating PECVD SiNx. In Chapter 6, spray-deposited hematite Fe2O3 and sol-gel prepared anatase TiO2 thin films are sulfurized by annealing in H2S to investigate the band gap narrowing by sulfur doping and explore the possibility of using ternary semiconductors for their application as solar absorbers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Surface modification of polydimethyl siloxane using polyethylene oxide copolymers

Description

Polydimethyl siloxane is a commonly used fabrication material for microfluidic devices. However, its hydrophobic nature and protein adsorption on the surface restricts its use for microfluidic applications. Also, it is

Polydimethyl siloxane is a commonly used fabrication material for microfluidic devices. However, its hydrophobic nature and protein adsorption on the surface restricts its use for microfluidic applications. Also, it is critical to control the electroosmotic flow for electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic manipulations. Therefore, surface modification of PDMS is essential to make it well suited for bioanalytical applications. In this project, the role of polyethylene oxide copolymers F108 and PLL-PEG has been investigated to modify the surface properties of PDMS using physisorption method. Measuring electroosmotic flow and adsorption studies tested the quality and the long-term stability of the modified PDMS surface. Static and dynamic coating strategies were used to modify the PDMS surface. In static coating, the PDMS surface was incubated with the coating agent prior to the measurements. For dynamic coating, the coating agent was always present in the solution throughout the experiment. F108 and PLL-PEG were equally effective to prevent the protein adsorption under both strategies. However, dynamic coating was more time saving. Furthermore, effective reduction of EOF was observed with F108 coating agent under dynamic conditions and with PLL-PEG coating agent under static conditions. Moreover, PLL-PEG dynamic coatings exhibited reversal of EOF. These important findings could be used to manipulate EOF and suggest optimal coating agent and strategies for PDMS surface treatment by the physisorption method.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Generation of tolerance maps for line pofile by primitive T-map elements

Description

The objective of this research is to develop methods for generating the Tolerance-Map for a line-profile that is specified by a designer to control the geometric profile shape of a

The objective of this research is to develop methods for generating the Tolerance-Map for a line-profile that is specified by a designer to control the geometric profile shape of a surface. After development, the aim is to find one that can be easily implemented in computer software using existing libraries. Two methods were explored: the parametric modeling method and the decomposed modeling method. The Tolerance-Map (T-Map) is a hypothetical point-space, each point of which represents one geometric variation of a feature in its tolerance-zone. T-Maps have been produced for most of the tolerance classes that are used by designers, but, prior to the work of this project, the method of construction required considerable intuitive input, rather than being based primarily on automated computer tools. Tolerances on line-profiles are used to control cross-sectional shapes of parts, such as every cross-section of a mildly twisted compressor blade. Such tolerances constrain geometric manufacturing variations within a specified two-dimensional tolerance-zone. A single profile tolerance may be used to control position, orientation, and form of the cross-section. Four independent variables capture all of the profile deviations: two independent translations in the plane of the profile, one rotation in that plane, and the size-increment necessary to identify one of the allowable parallel profiles. For the selected method of generation, the line profile is decomposed into three types of segments, a primitive T-Map is produced for each segment, and finally the T-Maps from all the segments are combined to obtain the T-Map for the given profile. The types of segments are the (straight) line-segment, circular arc-segment, and the freeform-curve segment. The primitive T-Maps are generated analytically, and, for freeform-curves, they are built approximately with the aid of the computer. A deformation matrix is used to transform the primitive T-Maps to a single coordinate system for the whole profile. The T-Map for the whole line profile is generated by the Boolean intersection of the primitive T-Maps for the individual profile segments. This computer-implemented method can generate T-Maps for open profiles, closed ones, and those containing concave shapes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013