Matching Items (16)

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Novel directional protection sheme for the FREEDM smart grid system

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This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

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2015

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Design and development of a novel fast pilot protection system for future renewable electric energy distribution management project

Description

In the future electrical distribution system, it can be predicted that local power generators such as photovoltaic panels or wind turbines will play an important role in local distribution network. The local energy generation and local energy storage device can

In the future electrical distribution system, it can be predicted that local power generators such as photovoltaic panels or wind turbines will play an important role in local distribution network. The local energy generation and local energy storage device can cause indeterminable power flow, and this could cause severe protection problems to existing simple overcurrent coordinated distribution protection system. An accurate, fast and reliable protection system based on pilot protection concept is proposed in this thesis. A comprehensive protection design specialized for the FREEDM system - the intelligent fault management (IFM) is presented in detail. In IFM, the pilot-differential protective method is employed as primary protection while the overcurrent protective method is employed as a backup protection. The IFM has been implemented by a real time monitoring program on LabVIEW. A complete sensitivity and selectivity analysis based on simulation is performed to evaluate the protection program performance under various system operating conditions. Followed by the sensitivity analysis, a case study of multiple-terminal model is presented with the possible challenges and potential limitation of the proposed protection system. Furthermore, a micro controller based on a protection system as hardware implementation is studied on a scaled physical test bed. The communication block and signal processing block are accomplished to establish cooperation between the micro-controller hardware and the IFM program. Various fault cases are tested. The result obtained shows that the proposed protection system successfully identifies faults on the test bed and the response time is approximately 1 cycle which is fast compared to the existing commercial protection systems and satisfies the FREEDM system requirement. In the end, an advanced system with faster, dedicated communication media is accomplished. By verifying with the virtual FREEDM system on RTDS, the correctness and the advantages of the proposed method are verified. An ultra fast protection system response time of 4ms is achieved, which is the fastest protection system for a distribution level electrical system.

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2012

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Sensitivity-based Pricing and Multiobjective Control for Energy Management in Power Distribution Systems

Description

In the deregulated power system, locational marginal prices are used in transmission engineering predominantly as near real-time pricing signals. This work extends this concept to distribution engineering so that a distribution class locational marginal price might be used for real-time

In the deregulated power system, locational marginal prices are used in transmission engineering predominantly as near real-time pricing signals. This work extends this concept to distribution engineering so that a distribution class locational marginal price might be used for real-time pricing and control of advanced control systems in distribution circuits. A formulation for the distribution locational marginal price signal is presented that is based on power flow sensitivities in a distribution system. A Jacobian-based sensitivity analysis has been developed for application in the distribution pricing method. Increasing deployment of distributed energy sources is being seen at the distribution level and this trend is expected to continue. To facilitate an optimal use of the distributed infrastructure, the control of the energy demand on a feeder node in the distribution system has been formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem and a solution algorithm has been developed. In multiobjective problems the Pareto optimality criterion is generally applied, and commonly used solution algorithms are decision-based and heuristic. In contrast, a mathematically-robust technique called normal boundary intersection has been modeled for use in this work, and the control variable is solved via separable programming. The Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) has predominantly been used to demonstrate the application of the formulation in distribution system control. A parallel processing environment has been used to replicate the distributed nature of controls at many points in the distribution system. Interactions between the real-time prices in a distribution feeder and the nodal prices at the aggregated load bus have been investigated. The application of the formulations in an islanded operating condition has also been demonstrated. The DLMP formulation has been validated using the test bed systems and a practical framework for its application in distribution engineering has been presented. The multiobjective optimization yields excellent results and is found to be robust for finer time resolutions. The work shown in this report is applicable to, and has been researched under the aegis of the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) center, which is a generation III National Science Foundation engineering research center headquartered at North Carolina State University.

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2012

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Adaptive operation decisions for a system of smart buildings

Description

Buildings (approximately half commercial and half residential) consume over 70% of the electricity among all the consumption units in the United States. Buildings are also responsible for approximately 40% of CO2 emissions, which is more than any other industry sectors.

Buildings (approximately half commercial and half residential) consume over 70% of the electricity among all the consumption units in the United States. Buildings are also responsible for approximately 40% of CO2 emissions, which is more than any other industry sectors. As a result, the initiative smart building which aims to not only manage electrical consumption in an efficient way but also reduce the damaging effect of greenhouse gases on the environment has been launched. Another important technology being promoted by government agencies is the smart grid which manages energy usage across a wide range of buildings in an effort to reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency. As a great amount of efforts have been devoted to these two initiatives by either exploring the smart grid designs or developing technologies for smart buildings, the research studying how the smart buildings and smart grid coordinate thus more efficiently use the energy is currently lacking. In this dissertation, a "system-of-system" approach is employed to develop an integrated building model which consists a number of buildings (building cluster) interacting with smart grid. The buildings can function as both energy consumption unit as well as energy generation/storage unit. Memetic Algorithm (MA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based decision framework are developed for building operation decisions. In addition, Particle Filter (PF) is explored as a mean for fusing online sensor and meter data so adaptive decision could be made in responding to dynamic environment. The dissertation is divided into three inter-connected research components. First, an integrated building energy model including building consumption, storage, generation sub-systems for the building cluster is developed. Then a bi-level Memetic Algorithm (MA) based decentralized decision framework is developed to identify the Pareto optimal operation strategies for the building cluster. The Pareto solutions not only enable multiple dimensional tradeoff analysis, but also provide valuable insight for determining pricing mechanisms and power grid capacity. Secondly, a multi-objective PSO based decision framework is developed to reduce the computational effort of the MA based decision framework without scarifying accuracy. With the improved performance, the decision time scale could be refined to make it capable for hourly operation decisions. Finally, by integrating the multi-objective PSO based decision framework with PF, an adaptive framework is developed for adaptive operation decisions for smart building cluster. The adaptive framework not only enables me to develop a high fidelity decision model but also enables the building cluster to respond to the dynamics and uncertainties inherent in the system.

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2012

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Signal processing and robust statistics for fault detection in photovoltaic arrays

Description

Photovoltaics (PV) is an important and rapidly growing area of research. With the advent of power system monitoring and communication technology collectively known as the "smart grid," an opportunity exists to apply signal processing techniques to monitoring and control of

Photovoltaics (PV) is an important and rapidly growing area of research. With the advent of power system monitoring and communication technology collectively known as the "smart grid," an opportunity exists to apply signal processing techniques to monitoring and control of PV arrays. In this paper a monitoring system which provides real-time measurements of each PV module's voltage and current is considered. A fault detection algorithm formulated as a clustering problem and addressed using the robust minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimator is described; its performance on simulated instances of arc and ground faults is evaluated. The algorithm is found to perform well on many types of faults commonly occurring in PV arrays. Among several types of detection algorithms considered, only the MCD shows high performance on both types of faults.

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2012

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Design and development of protection schemes for FREEDM smart grid systems

Description

This research work describes the design and validation of protection schemes developed to solve the problem of communication with an ability to detect and sectionalize the fault. Protection schemes have been designed according to the requirements of the Future Renewable

This research work describes the design and validation of protection schemes developed to solve the problem of communication with an ability to detect and sectionalize the fault. Protection schemes have been designed according to the requirements of the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Due to the presence of distributed generation (DG), power flow in the loop is bi-directional and conventional protection schemes may face the problem of unwanted tripping. Hence customized protection schemes have been developed specific to the FREEDM system. Former FREEDM students at ASU have developed ultrafast pilot differential protection using fast analog communication (Ethercat communication) and modified it in various ways to speed up the fault detecting capability of the algorithm. However, the National Science Foundation (NSF) criticized the use of Ethernet communication, as it is not compatible for long distances. FREEDM loop uses a fault current limiter (FCL) to limit the fault current and the substation solid state transformer (SST) reduces the system voltage to limit the fault current to 2 per unit. This allows the protection scheme to detect fault current in 2-3 cycles. However a much delayed fault detection is not encouraged as it will disrupt the power supply to healthy parts of the system for a longer duration. Time inverse directional overcurrent protection, pilot directional protection and PMU based protection are developed in this thesis work addressing the communication problem and at the same time with the ability to quickly detect the faults. Validation of the protection scheme is performed on the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) at the Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS) using SEL relays and simulation models are developed in PSCAD.

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2014

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Implementation of pilot protection system for large scale distribution system like the future renewable electric energy distribution management project

Description

A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more reliable and then was applied to smart distribution grids to

A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more reliable and then was applied to smart distribution grids to verify the results for it. The new 10 sample window method was adapted into the pilot protection program and its performance for the test bed system operation was tabulated. Following that the system comparison between the hardware results for the same algorithm and the simulation results were compared. The development of the dual slope percentage differential method, its comparison with the 10 sample average window pilot protection system and the effects of CT saturation on the pilot protection system are also shown in this thesis. The implementation of the 10 sample average window pilot protection system is done to multiple distribution grids like Green Hub v4.3, IEEE 34, LSSS loop and modified LSSS loop. Case studies of these multi-terminal model are presented, and the results are also shown in this thesis. The result obtained shows that the new algorithm for the previously proposed protection system successfully identifies fault on the test bed and the results for both hardware and software simulations match and the response time is approximately less than quarter of a cycle which is fast as compared to the present commercial protection system and satisfies the FREEDM system requirement.

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2014

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Detection of back-fed ground faults using smart grid distribution technology

Description

The safety issue in an electrical power distribution system is of critical importance. In some circumstances, even the continuity of service has to be compromised for a situation that can cause a hazard to the public. A downed conductor that

The safety issue in an electrical power distribution system is of critical importance. In some circumstances, even the continuity of service has to be compromised for a situation that can cause a hazard to the public. A downed conductor that creates an electrical path between a current carrying conductor and ground pose a potential lethal hazard to anyone in the near proximity. Electric utilities have yet to find a fully accepted and reliable method for detecting downed conductors even with decades of research.

With the entry of more automation and a smarter grid in the different layers of distribution power system supply, new doors are being opened and new feasible solutions are waiting to be explored. The 'big data' and the infrastructures that are readily accessible through the smart metering system is the base of the work and analysis performed in this thesis. In effect, the new technologies and new solutions are an artifact of the Smart Grid effort which has now reached worldwide dimensions. A solution to problems of overhead distribution conductor failures / faults that use simple methods and that are easy to implement using existing and future distribution management systems is presented.

A European type distribution system using three phase supply is utilized as the test bed for the concepts presented. Fault analysis is performed on the primary and the secondary distribution system using the free downloadable software OpenDSS. The outcome is a set of rules that can be implemented either locally or central using a voltage based method. Utilized in the distribution management systems the operators will be given a powerful tool to make the correct action when a situation occurs. The test bed itself is taken from an actual system in Norway.

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2014

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A study of energy management systems and its failure modes in smart grid power distribution

Description

The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system known as the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management

The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system known as the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Energy management through demand response is one of the key applications of smart grid. Demand response today is envisioned as a method in which the price could be communicated to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods. The development and deployment of the FREEDM system necessitates controls of energy and power at the point of end use.

In this thesis, the main objective is to develop the control model of the Energy Management System (EMS). The energy and power management in the FREEDM system is digitally controlled therefore all signals containing system states are discrete. The EMS is modeled as a discrete closed loop transfer function in the z-domain. A breakdown of power and energy control devices such as EMS components may result in energy con-sumption error. This leads to one of the main focuses of the thesis which is to identify and study component failures of the designed control system. Moreover, H-infinity ro-bust control method is applied to ensure effectiveness of the control architecture. A focus of the study is cyber security attack, specifically bad data detection in price. Test cases are used to illustrate the performance of the EMS control design, the effect of failure modes and the application of robust control technique.

The EMS was represented by a linear z-domain model. The transfer function be-tween the pricing signal and the demand response was designed and used as a test bed. EMS potential failure modes were identified and studied. Three bad data detection meth-odologies were implemented and a voting policy was used to declare bad data. The run-ning mean and standard deviation analysis method proves to be the best method to detect bad data. An H-infinity robust control technique was applied for the first time to design discrete EMS controller for the FREEDM system.

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2014

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Detection of cyber attacks in power distribution energy management systems

Description

The objective of this thesis is to detect certain cyber attacks in a power distribution ener-gy management system in a Smart Grid infrastructure. In the Smart Grid, signals are sent be-tween the distribution operator and the customer on a real-time

The objective of this thesis is to detect certain cyber attacks in a power distribution ener-gy management system in a Smart Grid infrastructure. In the Smart Grid, signals are sent be-tween the distribution operator and the customer on a real-time basis. Signals are used for auto-mated energy management, protection and energy metering. This thesis aims at making use of various signals in the system to detect cyber attacks. The focus of the thesis is on a cyber attack that changes the parameters of the energy management system. The attacks considered change the set points, thresholds for energy management decisions, signal multipliers, and other digitally stored parameters that ultimately determine the transfer functions of the components. Since the distribution energy management system is assumed to be in a Smart Grid infrastructure, customer demand is elastic to the price of energy. The energy pricing is represented by a distribution loca-tional marginal price. A closed loop control system is utilized as representative of the energy management system. Each element of the system is represented by a linear transfer function. Studies are done via simulations and these simulations are performed in Matlab SimuLink. The analytical calculations are done using Matlab.

Signals from the system are used to obtain the frequency response of the component transfer functions. The magnitude and phase angle of the transfer functions are obtained using the fast Fourier transform. The transfer function phase angles of base cases (no attack) are stored and are compared with the phase angles calculated at regular time intervals. If the difference in the phase characteristics is greater than a set threshold, an alarm is issued indicating the detection of a cyber attack.

The developed algorithm is designed for use in the envisioned Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Examples are shown for the noise free and noisy cases.

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2014