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Integrated predictive model for healing and fatigue endurance limit for asphalt concrete

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One of the main requirements of designing perpetual pavements is to determine the endurance limit of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). The purpose of this study was to validate the endurance limit for HMA using laboratory beam fatigue tests. A mathematical

One of the main requirements of designing perpetual pavements is to determine the endurance limit of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). The purpose of this study was to validate the endurance limit for HMA using laboratory beam fatigue tests. A mathematical procedure was developed to determine the endurance limit of HMA due to healing that occurs during the rest periods between loading cycles. Relating healing to endurance limit makes this procedure unique compared to previous research projects that investigated these concepts separately. An extensive laboratory testing program, including 468 beam tests, was conducted according to AASHTO T321-03 test procedure. Six factors that affect the fatigue response of HMA were evaluated: binder type, binder content, air voids, test temperature, rest period and applied strain. The endurance limit was determined when no accumulated damage occurred indicating complete healing. Based on the test results, a first generation predictive model was developed to relate stiffness ratio to material properties. A second generation stiffness ratio model was also developed by replacing four factors (binder type, binder content, air voids, and temperature) with the initial stiffness of the mixture, which is a basic material property. The model also accounts for the nonlinear effects of the rest period and the applied strain on the healing and endurance limit. A third generation model was then developed by incorporation the number of loading cycles at different locations along the fatigue degradation curve for each test in order to account for the nonlinearity between stiffness ratio and loading cycles. In addition to predicting endurance limit, the model has the ability to predict the number of cycles to failure at any rest period and stiffness combination. The model was used to predict fatigue relationship curves for tests with rest period and determining the K1, K2, and K3 fatigue cracking coefficients. The three generation models predicted close endurance limit values ranging from 22 to 204 micro strains. After developing the third generation stiffness ratio model, the predicted endurance limit values were integrated in the strain-Nf fatigue relationships as a step toward incorporating the endurance limit in the MEPDG software. The results of this study can be used to design perpetual pavements that can sustain a large number of loads if traffic volumes and vehicle weights are controlled.

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Date Created
2012

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Development of the C* fracture test for asphalt concrete mixtures

Description

Laboratory assessment of crack resistance and propagation in asphalt concrete is a difficult task that challenges researchers and engineers. Several fracture mechanics based laboratory tests currently exist; however, these tests and subsequent analysis methods rely on elastic behavior assumptions and

Laboratory assessment of crack resistance and propagation in asphalt concrete is a difficult task that challenges researchers and engineers. Several fracture mechanics based laboratory tests currently exist; however, these tests and subsequent analysis methods rely on elastic behavior assumptions and do not consider the time-dependent nature of asphalt concrete. The C* Line Integral test has shown promise to capture crack resistance and propagation within asphalt concrete. In addition, the fracture mechanics based C* parameter considers the time-dependent creep behavior of the materials. However, previous research was limited and lacked standardized test procedure and detailed data analysis methods were not fully presented. This dissertation describes the development and refinement of the C* Fracture Test (CFT) based on concepts of the C* line integral test. The CFT is a promising test to assess crack propagation and fracture resistance especially in modified mixtures. A detailed CFT test protocol was developed based on a laboratory study of different specimen sizes and test conditions. CFT numerical simulations agreed with laboratory results and indicated that the maximum horizontal tensile stress (Mode I) occurs at the crack tip but diminishes at longer crack lengths when shear stress (Mode II) becomes present. Using CFT test results and the principles of time-temperature superposition, a crack growth rate master curve was successfully developed to describe crack growth over a range of test temperatures. This master curve can be applied to pavement design and analysis to describe crack propagation as a function of traffic conditions and pavement temperatures. Several plant mixtures were subjected to the CFT and results showed differences in resistance to crack propagation, especially when comparing an asphalt rubber mixture to a conventional one. Results indicated that crack propagation is ideally captured within a given range of dynamic modulus values. Crack growth rates and C* prediction models were successfully developed for all unmodified mixtures in the CFT database. These models can be used to predict creep crack propagation and the C* parameter when laboratory testing is not feasible. Finally, a conceptual approach to incorporate crack growth rate and the C* parameter into pavement design and analysis was presented.

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Date Created
2013

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Investigation and improvement in reliability of asphalt concrete fatigue modeling using fine aggregate matrix phase

Description

The fatigue resistance of asphalt concrete (AC) plays an important role in the service life of a pavement. For predicting the fatigue life of AC, there are several existing empirical and mechanistic models. However, the assessment and quantification of the

The fatigue resistance of asphalt concrete (AC) plays an important role in the service life of a pavement. For predicting the fatigue life of AC, there are several existing empirical and mechanistic models. However, the assessment and quantification of the ‘reliability’ of the predictions from these models is a substantial knowledge gap. The importance of reliability in AC material performance predictions becomes all the more important in light of limited monetary and material resources. The goal of this dissertation research is to address these shortcomings by developing a framework for incorporating reliability into the prediction of mechanical models for AC and to improve the reliability of AC material performance prediction by using Fine Aggregate Matrix (FAM) phase data. The goal of the study is divided into four objectives; 1) development of a reliability framework for fatigue life prediction of AC materials using the simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model, 2) development of test protocols for FAM in similar loading conditions as AC, 3) evaluation of the mechanical linkages between the AC and FAM mix through upscaling analysis, and 4) investigation of the hypothesis that the reliability of fatigue life prediction of AC can be improved with FAM data modeling.

In this research effort, a reliability framework is developed using Monte Carlo simulation for predicting the fatigue life of AC material using the S-VECD model. The reliability analysis reveals that the fatigue life prediction is very sensitive to the uncertainty in the input variables. FAM testing in similar loading conditions as AC, and upscaling of AC modulus and damage response using FAM properties from a relatively simple homogenized continuum approach shows promising results. The FAM phase fatigue life prediction and upscaling of FAM results to AC show more reliable fatigue life prediction than the fatigue life prediction of AC material using its experimental data. To assess the sensitivity of fatigue life prediction model to uncertainty in the input variables, a parametric sensitivity study is conducted on the S-VECD model. Overall, the findings from this research show promising results both in terms of upscaling FAM to AC properties and the reliability of fatigue prediction in AC using experimental data on FAM.

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Date Created
2016

A study of heating and degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate polymer due to ultraviolet lasers illumination during localized pre-deposition heating for fused filament fabrication 3D printing

Description

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured

With the growing popularity of 3d printing in recreational, research, and commercial enterprises new techniques and processes are being developed to improve the quality of parts created. Even so, the anisotropic properties is still a major hindrance of parts manufactured in this method. The goal is to produce parts that mimic the strength characteristics of a comparable part of the same design and materials created using injection molding. In achieving this goal the production cost can be reduced by eliminating the initial investment needed for the creation of expensive tooling. This initial investment reduction will allow for a wider variant of products in smaller batch runs to be made available. This thesis implements the use of ultraviolet (UV) illumination for an in-process laser local pre-deposition heating (LLPH). By comparing samples with and without the LLPH process it is determined that applied energy that is absorbed by the polymer is converted to an increase in the interlayer temperature, and resulting in an observed increase in tensile strength over the baseline test samples. The increase in interlayer bonding thus can be considered the dominating factor over polymer degradation.

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Date Created
2017

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Utilization of thermoplastic mounting studs for simple performance testing on hot mix asphalt

Description

The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to

The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to obtain properties that will help in future pavement designs. Currently, these fixtures (mounting studs) are made of expensive brass and cumbersome to clean with or without chemicals.

Three types of thermoplastics were utilized to assess the effect of temperature and applied stress on the performance of the 3D printed studs. Asphalt concrete samples fitted with thermoplastic studs were tested according to AASHTO & ASTM standards. The thermoplastics tested are: Polylactic acid (PLA), the most common 3D printing material; Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), a typical 3D printing material which is less rigid than PLA and has a higher melting temperature; Polycarbonate (PC), a strong, high temperature 3D printing material.

A high traffic volume Marshal mix design from the City of Phoenix was obtained and adapted to a Superpave mix design methodology. The mix design is dense-graded with nominal maximum aggregate size of ¾” inch and a PG 70-10 binder. Samples were fabricated and the following tests were performed: Dynamic Modulus |E*| conducted at five temperatures and six frequencies; Flow Number conducted at a high temperature of 50°C, and axial cyclic fatigue test at a moderate temperature of 18°C.

The results from SPT for each 3D printed material were compared to results using brass mounting studs. Validation or rejection of the concept was determined from statistical analysis on the mean and variance of collected SPT test data.

The concept of using 3D printed thermoplastic for mounting stud fabrication is a promising option; however, the concept should be verified with more extensive research using a variety of asphalt mixes and operators to ensure no bias in the repeatability and reproducibility of test results. The Polycarbonate (PC) had a stronger layer bonding than ABS and PLA while printing. It was recommended for follow up studies.

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Date Created
2018