Matching Items (5)

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Limited proteolysis of the AAA+ protein Rubisco activase from Nicotiana tabacum

Description

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is widely accepted as the world's most abundant enzyme and represents the primary entry point for inorganic carbon into the biosphere. Rubisco's slow carboxylation rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is widely accepted as the world's most abundant enzyme and represents the primary entry point for inorganic carbon into the biosphere. Rubisco's slow carboxylation rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and its susceptibility to inhibition has led some to term it the "bottle neck" of photosynthesis. In order to ensure that Rubisco remains uninhibited, plants require the catalytic chaperone Rubisco activase. Activase is a member of the AAA+ superfamily, ATPases associated with various cellular activities, and uses ATP hydrolysis as the driving force behind a conformational movement that returns activity to inhibited Rubisco active sites. A high resolution activase structure will be an essential tool for examining Rubisco/activase interactions as well as understanding the activase self-association phenomenon. Rubisco activase has long eluded crystallization, likely due to its infamous self-association (polydispersity). Therefore, a limited proteolysis approach was taken to identify soluble activase subdomains as potential crystallization targets. This process involves using proteolytic enzymes to cleave a protein into a few pieces and has previously proven successful in identifying crystallizable protein fragments. Limited proteolysis, utilizing two different proteolytic enzymes (alpha-chymotrypsin and trypsin), identified two tobacco activase products. The fragments that were identified appear to represent most of what is considered to be the AAA+ C-terminal all alpha-domain and some of the AAA+ N-terminal alpha beta alpha-domain. Identified fragments were cloned using the pET151/dTOPO. The project then moved towards cloning and recombinant protein expression in E. coli. NtAbeta(248-383) and NtAbeta(253-354) were successfully cloned, expressed, purified, and characterized through various biophysical techniques. A thermofluor assay of NtAbeta(248-383) revealed a melting temperature of about 30°C, indicating lower thermal stability compared with full-length activase at 43°C. Size exclusion chromatography suggested that NtAbeta(248-383) is monomeric. Circular dichroism was used to identify the secondary structure; a plurality of alpha-helices. NtAbeta(248-383) and NtAbeta(253-354) were subjected to crystallization trials.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Subunit exchange in spinach short-form Rubisco activase

Description

The primary carbon fixing enzyme Rubisco maintains its activity through release of trapped inhibitors by Rubisco activase (Rca). Very little is known about the interaction, but binding has been proposed

The primary carbon fixing enzyme Rubisco maintains its activity through release of trapped inhibitors by Rubisco activase (Rca). Very little is known about the interaction, but binding has been proposed to be weak and transient. Extensive effort was made to develop Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based assays to understand the physical interaction between Rubisco and Rca, as well as understand subunit exchange in Rca.

Preparations of labeled Rubisco and Rca were utilized in a FRET-based binding assay. Although initial data looked promising, this approach was not fruitful, as no true FRET signal was observed. One possibility is that under the conditions tested, Rca is not able to undergo the structural reorganizations necessary to achieve binding-competent conformations. Rca may also be asymmetric, leading to less stable binding of an already weak interaction.

To better understand the structural adjustments of Rca, subunit exchange between different oligomeric species was examined. It was discovered that subunit exchange is nucleotide dependent, with ADP giving the fastest exchange, ATP giving slower exchange and ATPS inhibiting exchange. Manganese, like ADP, destabilizes subunit-subunit interactions for rapid and facile exchange between oligomers. Three different types of assemblies were deduced from the rates of subunit exchange: rigid types with extremely slow dissociation of individual protomers, tight assemblies with the physiological substrate ATP, and loose assemblies that provide fast exchange due to high ADP.

Information gained about Rca subunit exchange can be used to reexamine the physical interaction between Rubisco and Rca using the FRET-binding assay. These binding assays will provide insight into Rca states able to interact with Rubisco, as well as define conditions to generate bound states for structural analysis. In combination with assembly assays, subunit exchange assays and reactivation studies will provide critical information about the structure/function relationship of Rca in the presence of different nucleotides. Together, these FRET-based assays will help to characterize the Rca regulation mechanism and provide valuable insight into the Rubisco reactivation mechanism.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Self-assembly mechanism of Rubisco activase

Description

The AAA+ ATPase Rubisco activase (Rca) regulates the activity of Rubisco, the photosynthetic enzyme responsible for catalyzing biological carbon fixation. However, the detailed mechanism by which Rca self-association controls Rubisco

The AAA+ ATPase Rubisco activase (Rca) regulates the activity of Rubisco, the photosynthetic enzyme responsible for catalyzing biological carbon fixation. However, the detailed mechanism by which Rca self-association controls Rubisco reactivation activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we are using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to better characterize the thermodynamics of the assembly process of cotton Rca. We present FCS data for Rca in the presence of Mg*ATPgS and Mg*ADP and for the D173N Walker B motif mutant in the presence of Mg*ATP. Our data are consistent with promotion and stabilization of hexamers by Mg*ATPgS and Mg*ATP, whereas Mg*ADP facilitates continuous assembly. We find that in the presence of Mg·ADP, Rca self-associates in a step-wise fashion to form oligomeric and higher order forms, with a strong size dependence on subunit concentration. The monomer is the dominant species below 0.5 micromolar, whereas the hexamer appears to be most populated in the 10-30 micromolar range. Large assemblies containing on the order of 24 subunits become dominant above 40 micromolar, with continued assembly at even higher concentrations. Our data are consistent with a highly dynamic exchange of subunits among oligomeric species of diverse sizes. The most likely ADP-mediated assembly mechanism seems to involve the formation of spiral supra-molecular structures that grow along the helical axis by the step-wise addition of dimeric units. To examine the effect of Mg·ATP on oligomerization, we have generated the D173N mutant of Rca, which binds but does not hydrolyze ATP. In range of 8 and 70 micromolar, 60-80% of Rca is predicted to form hexamers in the presence of Mg*ATP compared to just 30-40% with Mg*ADP. We see a clear trend at which hexamerization occurs at high ATP:ADP ratios and in addition, at increasing concentrations of free magnesium ions to 5 milimolar that results in formation of six subunits. We present an assembly model where Mg*ATP promotes and stabilizes hexamerization at low micromolar Rca concentrations relative to Mg*ADP, and suggest that this results from closed ring hexamer formation in Mg*ATP and open hexameric spiral formation in Mg*ADP .

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Investigating the stoichiometry of RuBisCO activase by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy

Description

Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase, commonly known as RuBisCO, is an enzyme involved in carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. The enzyme is subject to a mechanism-based deactivation during its catalytic cycle.

Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase, commonly known as RuBisCO, is an enzyme involved in carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. The enzyme is subject to a mechanism-based deactivation during its catalytic cycle. RuBisCO activase (Rca), an ancillary enzyme belonging to the AAA+ family of the ATP-ases, rescues RuBisCO by facilitating the removal of the tightly bound sugar phosphates from the active sites of RuBisCO. In this work, we investigated the ATP/ADP dependent oligomerization equilibrium of fluorescently tagged Rca for a wide range of concentrations using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Results show that in the presence of ADP-Mg2+, the oligomerization state of Rca gradually changes in steps of two subunits. The most probable association model supports the dissociation constants (K_d) of ∼4, 1, 1 μM for the monomer-dimer, dimer-tetramer, and tetramer-hexamer equlibria, respectively. Rca continues to assemble at higher concentrations which are indicative of the formation of aggregates. In the presence of ATP-Mg2+, a similar stepwise assembly is observed. However, at higher concentrations (30-75 µM), the average oligomeric size remains relatively unchanged around six subunits per oligomer. This is in sharp contrast with observations in ADP-Mg2+, where a marked decrease in the diffusion coefficient of Rca was observed, consistent with the formation of aggregates. The estimated K_d values obtained from the analysis of the FCS decays were similar for the first steps of the assembly process in both ADP-Mg2+ and ATP-Mg2+. However, the formation of the hexamer from the tetramer is much more favored in ATP-Mg2+, as evidenced from 20 fold lower K_d associated with this assembly step. This suggests that the formation of a hexameric ring in the presence of ATP-Mg2+. In addition to that, Rca aggregation is largely suppressed in the presence of ATP-Mg2+, as evidenced from the 1000 fold larger K_d value for the hexamer-24 mer association step. In essence, a fluorescence-based method was developed to monitor in vitro protein oligomerization and was successfully applied with Rca. The results provide a strong hint at the active oligomeric structure of Rca, and this information will hopefully help the ongoing research on the mechanistic enzymology of Rca.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Understanding the mechanistic regulation of Rubisco activase using steady state enzyme kinetic analysis of ATPase activity

Description

ABSTRACT

The catalytic chaperone of Rubisco is AAA+ protein Rubisco activase (Rca), which hydrolyzes ATP and thus undergoes conformational change, helping in reactivating Rubisco. Rca reactivates Rubisco plausibly by removing its

ABSTRACT

The catalytic chaperone of Rubisco is AAA+ protein Rubisco activase (Rca), which hydrolyzes ATP and thus undergoes conformational change, helping in reactivating Rubisco. Rca reactivates Rubisco plausibly by removing its C- terminal tail from the opening of its active site thus releasing the inhibitor, a sugar phosphate molecule. Rubisco and Rca are regulated by the stromal environment, which includes the ATP/ADP ratio, Mg2+ concentration, redox potential etc. Here the mechanistic regulation of tobacco β-Rca was studied using steady state enzyme kinetics in terms of product inhibition, Mg2+ activation, cooperativity and asymmetry. A continuous Pi measurement assay was developed, and using this assay catalytic parameters were obtained, such as kcat 20.6 ± 6.5 min-1 ( n = 9) and KM 0.113 ± 0.033 mM (n = 4). A Mg2+ induced increase of substrate affinity in Rca was observed, where the KM changes from 0.452 mM to 0.069 mM, with the changing of free Mg2+ concentration from 0.1 mM to 10 mM. Fitting the catalytic efficiency as a function free Mg2+ concentration by use of a binding model gave a Hill coefficient of 2.2, which indicates a secondary magnesium binding site on the enzyme. A 8.4 fold increase of catalytic efficiency with increasing magnesium from 0.1 mM to 6.5 mM suggests a significant Mg2+ induced regulation of Rca. Moderate product inhibition was observed in inhibition study (Ki = 0. 063 ± 0.018 mM). A positive cooperativity (nH = 2.1) in ATP hydrolysis between two subunits was observed in the presence of 0.132 mM ADP, but not in the absence of ADP. This indicated the presence of two different classes of subunits, suggesting an asymmetric model for the enzyme. Inhibited Rubisco (ER) up to 20 μM concentration did not affect ATPase activity, in line with previous reports. The concentration dependent correlation of Rca activity (tobacco β-Rca) and oligomerization (cotton β-Rca) suggested that the dimer maybe the most active oligomeric species. A nucleotide induced thermal stabilization of Rca was observed, where ADP is more stabilizing than ATP in the absence of Mg2+. Mg2+ has a small destabilizing effect alone and in presence of the ADP, but a stabilizing effect in presence of ATP. The ligand induced thermal stability was similar for cotton and tobacco β-Rca.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015