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Time perspective as a predictor of psychological distress

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In 2012, there were an estimated 43.7 million adults in the United States that had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS],

In 2012, there were an estimated 43.7 million adults in the United States that had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2013). Given the large frequency of disorders, it is beneficial to learn about what factors influence psychological distress. One construct that has been increasingly examined in association with mental disorders is time perspective. The current study will investigate whether or not time perspective, as measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), has a unique contribution to the prediction of psychological distress. Studies have shown that time perspective has been related to psychological symptomology. Also, previous studies have shown that time perspective has been related to the constructs of neuroticism and negative affect, which have also been shown to be related to psychological distress. I also included the deviation from an optimal time perspective (DOTP) as a predictor separate from the ZTPI scales. So, I investigated whether or not time perspective has a unique influence on psychological distress when controlling for the previously mentioned related constructs. I also controlled for gender and age by including them as covariates in the regression analyses. I found that the past positive sub-scale and DOTP were significant predictors of psychological distress. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Future time perspective and strategy development of incarcerated young adults

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Possible selves research has focused primarily on academic achievement and student learning, for at-risk, adolescent or college aged students. The research has not examined an occupation possible self, nor the

Possible selves research has focused primarily on academic achievement and student learning, for at-risk, adolescent or college aged students. The research has not examined an occupation possible self, nor the implications of how time is considered by incarcerated populations. This study was designed to expand the Possible Selves Questionaire (PSQ) designed by Oyserman for an occupational achievement code and explore any unique codes present for incarcerated young adult males, aged 18-22. Additionally, this study was designed to compare two distinct time horizons for incarcerated young adults, a more proximal one-year event which would represent continued incarceration and a post-release distal time horizon.

A pilot study was conducted to establish the occupation and population codes, coding system, member checks and review processes that were then applied to interview 126 incarcerated young adult males between the ages of 18 and 22 in Arizona correctional facilities. The study produced not only an occupational achievement code, but also refined codes for interpersonal relationships requiring the addition of a spiritual/social code to account for church activities, religion, and spiritual groups, while narrowing the existing interpersonal relationships code to focus on family, children, a spouse or partner. Analysis demonstrated that incarcerated young adults create fewer identified strategies and have fewer aligned strategies to achieve post-release goals. Time served and expected sentences were determined to be significantly associated with the identification of goals, strategies, and development of aligned strategies. The impact of the different time horizon events of during and post incarceration were significant as well, participants identified five times as many goals one year from now in comparison to post-release, and on average 1.5 more strategies to achieve identified goals.

The study demonstrated that the participants expected sentence was a significantly associated covariate to the number of Future Possible Selves’(FPS) defined, number of strategies defined to achieve those FPS goals, and number of aligned strategies to FPS goals across time horizons of 1 year and post release. However, time served was only found to be a statistically significant covariate for both goal identification and strategy identification, not strategy alignment.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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The role of future time perspective: an examination of a structural model

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The present study of two hundred and seven university students examined the structural relation of future-orientation (both valence and instrumentality), career decision-making self-efficacy and career indecision (choice/commitment anxiety and lack

The present study of two hundred and seven university students examined the structural relation of future-orientation (both valence and instrumentality), career decision-making self-efficacy and career indecision (choice/commitment anxiety and lack of readiness). Structural equation modeling results indicated that while the overall proposed model fit the data well, my hypotheses were partially supported. Valence was not significantly related to career decision-making self-efficacy, choice/commitment anxiety and lack of readiness. However, instrumentality completely mediated the relation between valence and career decision-making self-efficacy, choice/commitment anxiety and lack of readiness. Instrumentality was significantly related to career decision-making self-efficacy and lack of readiness. Career decision-making self-efficacy completely mediated the relation between instrumentality and choice/commitment anxiety; however, it only partially mediated the relation between instrumentality and lack of readiness. Although the proposed model was invariant across gender, the findings indicate that women reported higher instrumentality and lower lack of readiness than did men. No differences were found for career decision-making self-efficacy and choice/commitment anxiety across gender. The findings suggest that psychologists, counselors, teachers, and career interventionists should consider the role future time perspective in university students' career development.

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Date Created
  • 2014