Matching Items (5)

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Misconceptions of emergent semiconductor phenomena

Description

The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV

The semiconductor field of Photovoltaics (PV) has experienced tremendous growth, requiring curricula to consider ways to promote student success. One major barrier to success students may face when learning PV is the development of misconceptions. The purpose of this work was to determine the presence and prevalence of misconceptions students may have for three PV semiconductor phenomena; Diffusion, Drift and Excitation. These phenomena are emergent, a class of phenomena that have certain characteristics. In emergent phenomena, the individual entities in the phenomena interact and aggregate to form a self-organizing pattern that can be observed at a higher level. Learners develop a different type of misconception for these phenomena, an emergent misconception. Participants (N=41) completed a written protocol. The pilot study utilized half of these protocols (n = 20) to determine the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions for the three phenomena. Once the presence of both general and emergent misconceptions was confirmed, all protocols (N=41) were analyzed to determine the presence and prevalence of general and emergent misconceptions, and to note any relationships among these misconceptions (full study). Through written protocol analysis of participants' responses, numerous codes emerged from the data for both general and emergent misconceptions. General and emergent misconceptions were found in 80% and 55% of participants' responses, respectively. General misconceptions indicated limited understandings of chemical bonding, electricity and magnetism, energy, and the nature of science. Participants also described the phenomena using teleological, predictable, and causal traits, indicating participants had misconceptions regarding the emergent aspects of the phenomena. For both general and emergent misconceptions, relationships were observed between similar misconceptions within and across the three phenomena, and differences in misconceptions were observed across the phenomena. Overall, the presence and prevalence of both general and emergent misconceptions indicates that learners have limited understandings of the physical and emergent mechanisms for the phenomena. Even though additional work is required, the identification of specific misconceptions can be utilized to enhance semiconductor and PV course content. Specifically, changes can be made to curriculum in order to limit the formation of misconceptions as well as promote conceptual change.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Beyond reductionism and emergence: study of the epistemic practices in gene expression research

Description

A central task for historians and philosophers of science is to characterize and analyze the epistemic practices in a given science. The epistemic practice of a science includes its explanatory

A central task for historians and philosophers of science is to characterize and analyze the epistemic practices in a given science. The epistemic practice of a science includes its explanatory goals as well as the methods used to achieve these goals. This dissertation addresses the epistemic practices in gene expression research spanning the mid-twentieth century to the twenty-first century. The critical evaluation of the standard historical narratives of the molecular life sciences clarifies certain philosophical problems with respect to reduction, emergence, and representation, and offers new ways with which to think about the development of scientific research and the nature of scientific change.

The first chapter revisits some of the key experiments that contributed to the development of the repression model of genetic regulation in the lac operon and concludes that the early research on gene expression and genetic regulation depict an iterative and integrative process, which was neither reductionist nor holist. In doing so, it challenges a common application of a conceptual framework in the history of biology and offers an alternative framework. The second chapter argues that the concept of emergence in the history and philosophy of biology is too ambiguous to account for the current research in post-genomic molecular biology and it is often erroneously used to argue against some reductionist theses. The third chapter investigates the use of network representations of gene expression in developmental evolution research and takes up some of the conceptual and methodological problems it has generated. The concluding comments present potential avenues for future research arising from each substantial chapter.

In sum, this dissertation argues that the epistemic practices of gene expression research are an iterative and integrative process, which produces theoretical representations of the complex interactions in gene expression as networks. Moreover, conceptualizing these interactions as networks constrains empirical research strategies by the limited number of ways in which gene expression can be controlled through general rules of network interactions. Making these strategies explicit helps to clarify how they can explain the dynamic and adaptive features of genomes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Leadership and organizational culture: an integrative view of leaders as culture creators and culture as social context

Description

Despite the vast amount of research within the leadership and culture domains, a paucity of research has integrated the two literatures. This dissertation investigates leadership, organizational culture, and the dynamic

Despite the vast amount of research within the leadership and culture domains, a paucity of research has integrated the two literatures. This dissertation investigates leadership, organizational culture, and the dynamic interplay between them. It is composed of three papers with the objective to integrate leadership and culture research, theoretically and empirically, and generate novel insights about both phenomena. Paper 1 describes how leader-unit interactions foster culture emergence. I integrate insights from social learning theory, self-regulation theory, and event-structure theory to enumerate how leader-unit interactions create values, beliefs, and underlying assumptions that become shared among members in a nascent work unit. Paper 2 integrates team motivation theory with multilevel leadership theory to address CEO task leadership's paradoxical effect on firm performance through intervening social (i.e., organizational culture) and psychological (i.e., TMT engagement) mechanisms. Using data from 106 CEOs and 324 top management team members, structural equation modeling results revealed that CEO task leadership enhanced firm performance through its positive association with task culture, which in turn was positively related to TMT engagement, which positively contributed to firm performance. Conversely, CEO task leadership hindered firm performance through its negative, direct effect on TMT engagement. Paper 3 integrates various approaches to organizational culture bandwidth that have produced a fragmented view of culture and its effects on organizational outcomes. I draw upon organizational culture theory and bandwidth theory to examine the incremental predictive validity of culture configurations and culture dimensions on broad and narrow criteria. Hierarchical linear regression analyses, from data consisting of 567 employees in 130 bank branches, indicated that narrow culture dimensions predicted variance in narrow outcomes whereas configurations explained incremental variance in broad outcomes above and beyond culture dimensions. Through this dissertation, I take an initial step toward illuminating the interrelationship between leadership and culture by identifying mechanisms through which unit leaders foster culture emergence and by examining how organizational culture is a social normative lens through which followers filter leader behavior. Given culture's importance to leadership and organizational outcomes, the conditions in which culture should be examined as a broad or a narrow phenomenon are also enumerated.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The physics of open ended evolution

Description

What makes living systems different than non-living ones? Unfortunately this question is impossible to answer, at least currently. Instead, we must face computationally tangible questions based on our current understanding

What makes living systems different than non-living ones? Unfortunately this question is impossible to answer, at least currently. Instead, we must face computationally tangible questions based on our current understanding of physics, computation, information, and biology. Yet we have few insights into how living systems might quantifiably differ from their non-living counterparts, as in a mathematical foundation to explain away our observations of biological evolution, emergence, innovation, and organization. The development of a theory of living systems, if at all possible, demands a mathematical understanding of how data generated by complex biological systems changes over time. In addition, this theory ought to be broad enough as to not be constrained to an Earth-based biochemistry. In this dissertation, the philosophy of studying living systems from the perspective of traditional physics is first explored as a motivating discussion for subsequent research. Traditionally, we have often thought of the physical world from a bottom-up approach: things happening on a smaller scale aggregate into things happening on a larger scale. In addition, the laws of physics are generally considered static over time. Research suggests that biological evolution may follow dynamic laws that (at least in part) change as a function of the state of the system. Of the three featured research projects, cellular automata (CA) are used as a model to study certain aspects of living systems in two of them. These aspects include self-reference, open-ended evolution, local physical universality, subjectivity, and information processing. Open-ended evolution and local physical universality are attributed to the vast amount of innovation observed throughout biological evolution. Biological systems may distinguish themselves in terms of information processing and storage, not outside the theory of computation. The final research project concretely explores real-world phenomenon by means of mapping dominance hierarchies in the evolution of video game strategies. Though the main question of how life differs from non-life remains unanswered, the mechanisms behind open-ended evolution and physical universality are revealed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The conceptual span and plausibility of emergence applied to the problem of mental causation

Description

This thesis explores the conceptual span and plausibility of emergence and its applicability to the problem of mental causation. The early parts of the project explicate a distinction between weak

This thesis explores the conceptual span and plausibility of emergence and its applicability to the problem of mental causation. The early parts of the project explicate a distinction between weak and strong emergence as described by Jaegwon Kim. They also consider Kim's objections regarding the conceptual incoherence of strong emergence and the otiose nature of weak emergence. The paper then explores Mark Bedau's in-between conception of emergence and ultimately finds that middle conception to be both coherent and useful. With these three emergence distinctions in hand, the thesis goes on to explore Evan Thompson's recent work - Mind in Life (2010). In that work, Thompson advances a strong emergence approach to mind, whereby he concludes the incipient stages of cognition are found at the most basic levels of life, namely - biologic cells. Along the way, Thompson embraces holism and a nonfundamental
onhierarchical physics in order to counter Jaegwon Kim's objections to the notion of downward causation needed for strong emergence. The thesis presents arguments against Thompson's holism and nonfundamental physics, while supporting his assertion regarding the incipient stages of cognition. It then combines an important distinction between mental causation and the experience of mental causation with Thompson's notion of incipient cognition to arrive at a dual realms approach to understanding mental causation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013