Matching Items (7)

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Growth and characterization of multisegment chalcogenide alloy nanostructures for photonic applications in a wide spectral range

Description

In this dissertation, I described my research on the growth and characterization of various nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets, of different semiconductors in a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

In this dissertation, I described my research on the growth and characterization of various nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets, of different semiconductors in a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system.

In the first part of my research, I selected chalcogenides (such as CdS and CdSe) for a comprehensive study in growing two-segment axial nanowires and radial nanobelts/sheets using the ternary CdSxSe1-x alloys. I demonstrated simultaneous red (from CdSe-rich) and green (from CdS-rich) light emission from a single monolithic heterostructure with a maximum wavelength separation of 160 nm. I also demonstrated the first simultaneous two-color lasing from a single nanosheet heterostructure with a wavelength separation of 91 nm under sufficiently strong pumping power.

In the second part, I considered several combinations of source materials with different growth methods in order to extend the spectral coverage of previously demonstrated structures towards shorter wavelengths to achieve full-color emissions. I achieved this with the growth of multisegment heterostructure nanosheets (MSHNs), using ZnS and CdSe chalcogenides, via our novel growth method. By utilizing this method, I demonstrated the first growth of ZnCdSSe MSHNs with an overall lattice mismatch of 6.6%, emitting red, green and blue light simultaneously, in a single furnace run using a simple CVD system. The key to this growth method is the dual ion exchange process which converts nanosheets rich in CdSe to nanosheets rich in ZnS, demonstrated for the first time in this work. Tri-chromatic white light emission with different correlated color temperature values was achieved under different growth conditions. We demonstrated multicolor (191 nm total wavelength separation) laser from a single monolithic semiconductor nanostructure for the first time. Due to the difficulties associated with growing semiconductor materials of differing composition on a given substrate using traditional planar epitaxial technology, our nanostructures and growth method are very promising for various device applications, including but not limited to: illumination, multicolor displays, photodetectors, spectrometers and monolithic multicolor lasers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Synthesis of hybrid (III-V)y(IV)5-2y semiconductors: a new approach to extending the optoelectronic capabilities of Si and Ge technologies

Description

Modern semiconductor technologies have been dominated by group-IV materials and III-V analogues. The development of hybrid derivatives combining appropriate members of these systems has been of interest for the purpose

Modern semiconductor technologies have been dominated by group-IV materials and III-V analogues. The development of hybrid derivatives combining appropriate members of these systems has been of interest for the purpose of extending the optoelectronic capabilities of the state-of-the-art. Early work on pseudo-binary (III-V)-IV alloys, described with the general formula (III-V)1-x(IV2)x,

showed limited progress due to phase segregation, auto-doping and compositional inhomogeneities. Recently, new techniques were introduced for synthesizing new classes of (III-V)-IV hybrid materials using reactions of V(IVH3)3 molecules [V = N, P, As and IV = Si, Ge] with group-III elements (B, Al, Ga, In). The reactions produce (III-V)-IV3 building blocks that interlink to form diamond-like

frameworks in which the III-V pairs incorporate as isolated units within the group-IV lattice. This approach not only precludes phase segregation, but also provides access to structures and compositions unattainable by conventional means. Entire new families of crystalline (III-V)-IV3 and (III-V)y(IV)5-y alloys with tunable IV-rich compositions, different from conventional (III-V)1-x(IV2)x systems, have been grown on Si(100) and GaP(100) wafers as well as Si1-xGex and Ge buffer layers which, in most cases, provide lattice matched templates for Si integration.

In this work, materials in the In-P-Ge, Ga-As-Ge and Ga-P-Si systems that would exhibit direct-gap behavior were targeted. A series of (InP)yGe5-2y alloys with tunable Ge contents above 60% were synthesized by reactions of P(GeH3)3 and indium atoms and were studied for bonding, structure, and optical response. (GaAs)yGe5-2y analogues were also grown and exhibited strong photoluminescence for applications in mid-IR photonics. The GaPSi3 alloy and Si-rich derivatives were produced via reactions of P(SiH3)3 and [H2GaNMe2]2 and exhibit enhanced absorption in the visible range. Quaternary analogues in the Al1-xBxPSi3 system were grown on Si via reactions of Al(BH4)3 and P(SiH3)3 leading to the formation crystalline materials with extended absorption relative to Si. This makes them imminently suitable for applications in Si-based photovoltaics. The work emphasized use of quantum-chemical simulations to elucidate structural, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of the synthesized systems. The theory also included simulations of new synthetic targets such as BNC3, BNSi3, BPC3, and BPSi3 with interesting mechanical properties and strong covalent bonding.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Engineering III-N alloys and devices for photovoltaic progress

Description

The state of the solar industry has reached a point where significant advancements in efficiency will require new materials and device concepts. The material class broadly known as the III-N's

The state of the solar industry has reached a point where significant advancements in efficiency will require new materials and device concepts. The material class broadly known as the III-N's have a rich history as a commercially successful semiconductor. Since discovery in 2003 these materials have shown promise for the field of photovoltaic solar technologies. However, inherent material issues in crystal growth and the subsequent effects on device performance have hindered their development. This thesis explores new growth techniques for III-N materials in tandem with new device concepts that will either work around the previous hindrances or open pathways to device technologies with higher theoretical limits than much of current photovoltaics. These include a novel crystal growth reactor, efforts in production of better quality material at faster rates, and development of advanced photovoltaic devices: an inversion junction solar cell, material work for hot carrier solar cell, ground work for a selective carrier contact, and finally a refractory solar cell for operation at several hundred degrees Celsius.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Nanowire synthesis and characterization: erbium chloride silicate and two segment CdS-CdSe nanowires and belts

Description

In this work, I worked on the synthesis and characterization of nanowires and belts, grown using different materials, in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system with catalytic growth method. Through this

In this work, I worked on the synthesis and characterization of nanowires and belts, grown using different materials, in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system with catalytic growth method. Through this thesis, I utilized the Photoluminescence (PL), Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to find out the properties of Erbium Chloride Silicate (ECS) and two segment CdS-CdSe samples. In the first part of my research, growth of very new material, Erbium Chloride Silicate (ECS), in form of core/shell Si/ECS and pure ECS nanowires, was demonstrated. This new material has very fascinating properties for new Si based photonic devices. The Erbium density in those nanowires is which is very high value compared to the other Erbium doped materials. It was shown that the luminescence peaks of ECS nanowires are very sharp and stronger than their counterparts. Furthermore, both PL and XRD peaks get sharper and stronger as growth temperature increases and this shows that crystalline quality of ECS nanowires gets better with higher temperature. In the second part, I did a very detail research for growing two segment axial nanowires or radial belts and report that the structure type mostly depends on the growth temperature. Since our final step is to create white light LEDs using single axial nanowires which have three different regions grown with distinct materials and give red, green and blue colors simultaneously, we worked on growing CdS-CdSe nanowires or belts for the first step of our aim. Those products were successfully grown and they gave two luminescence peaks with maximum 160 nm wavelength separation depending on the growth conditions. It was observed that products become more likely belt once the substrate temperature increases. Also, dominance between VLS and VS is very critical to determine the shape of the products and the substitution of CdS by CdSe is very effective; hence, CdSe growth time should be chosen accordingly. However, it was shown two segmented products can be synthesized by picking the right conditions and with very careful analyses. We also demonstrated that simultaneous two colors lasing from a single segmented belt structures is possible with strong enough-pumping-power.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Nanowire specialty diodes for integrated applications

Description

Semiconductor nanowires are important candidates for highly scaled three dimensional electronic devices. It is very advantageous to combine their scaling capability with the high yield of planar CMOS technology by

Semiconductor nanowires are important candidates for highly scaled three dimensional electronic devices. It is very advantageous to combine their scaling capability with the high yield of planar CMOS technology by integrating nanowire devices into planar circuits. The purpose of this research is to identify the challenges associated with the fabrication of vertically oriented Si and Ge nanowire diodes and modeling their electrical behavior so that they can be utilized to create unique three dimensional architectures that can boost the scaling of electronic devices into the next generation. In this study, vertical Ge and Si nanowire Schottky diodes have been fabricated using bottom-up vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and top-down reactive ion etching (RIE) approaches respectively. VLS growth yields nanowires with atomically smooth sidewalls at sub-50 nm diameters but suffers from the problem that the doping increases radially outwards from the core of the devices. RIE is much faster than VLS and does not suffer from the problem of non-uniform doping. However, it yields nanowires with rougher sidewalls and gets exceedingly inefficient in yielding vertical nanowires for diameters below 50 nm. The I-V characteristics of both Ge and Si nanowire diodes cannot be adequately fit by the thermionic emission model. Annealing in forming gas which passivates dangling bonds on the nanowire surface is shown to have a considerable impact on the current through the Si nanowire diodes indicating that fixed charges and traps on the surface of the devices play a major role in determining their electrical behavior. Also, due to the vertical geometry of the nanowire diodes, electric field lines originating from the metal and terminating on their sidewalls can directly modulate their conductivity. Both these effects have to be included in the model aimed at predicting the current through vertical nanowire diodes. This study shows that the current through vertical nanowire diodes cannot be predicted accurately using the thermionic emission model which is suitable for planar devices and identifies the factors needed to build a comprehensive analytical model for predicting the current through vertically oriented nanowire diodes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Simulating radial dendrite growth

Description

The formation of dendrites in materials is usually seen as a failure-inducing defect in devices. Naturally, most research views dendrites as a problem needing a solution while focusing on process

The formation of dendrites in materials is usually seen as a failure-inducing defect in devices. Naturally, most research views dendrites as a problem needing a solution while focusing on process control techniques and post-mortem analysis of various stress patterns with the ultimate goal of total suppression of the structures. However, programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology embraces dendrite formation in chalcogenide glasses by utilizing the nascent conductive filaments as its core operative element. Furthermore, exciting More-than-Moore capabilities in the realms of device watermarking and hardware encryption schema are made possible by the random nature of dendritic branch growth. While dendritic structures have been observed and are well-documented in solid state materials, there is still no satisfactory theoretical model that can provide insight and a better understanding of how dendrites form. Ultimately, what is desired is the capability to predict the final structure of the conductive filament in a PMC device so that exciting new applications can be developed with PMC technology.

This thesis details the results of an effort to create a first-principles MATLAB simulation model that uses configurable physical parameters to generate images of dendritic structures. Generated images are compared against real-world samples. While growth has a significant random component, there are several reliable characteristics that form under similar parameter sets that can be monitored such as the relative length of major dendrite arms, common branching angles, and overall growth directionality.

The first simulation model that was constructed takes a Newtonian perspective of the problem and is implemented using the Euler numerical method. This model has several shortcomings stemming majorly from the simplistic treatment of the problem, but is highly performant. The model is then revised to use the Verlet numerical method, which increases the simulation accuracy, but still does not fully resolve the issues with the theoretical background. The final simulation model returns to the Euler method, but is a stochastic model based on Mott-Gurney’s ion hopping theory applied to solids. The results from this model are seen to match real samples the closest of all simulations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Synthesis and characterization of erbium compound nanowires as high gain optical materials

Description

Integrated photonics requires high gain optical materials in the telecom wavelength range for optical amplifiers and coherent light sources. Erbium (Er) containing materials are ideal candidates due to the 1.5

Integrated photonics requires high gain optical materials in the telecom wavelength range for optical amplifiers and coherent light sources. Erbium (Er) containing materials are ideal candidates due to the 1.5 μm emission from Er3+ ions. However, the Er density in typical Er-doped materials is less than 1 x 1020 cm-3, thus limiting the maximum optical gain to a few dB/cm, too small to be useful for integrated photonics applications. Er compounds could potentially solve this problem since they contain much higher Er density. So far the existing Er compounds suffer from short lifetime and strong upconversion effects, mainly due to poor quality of crystals produced by various methods of thin film growth and deposition. This dissertation explores a new Er compound: erbium chloride silicate (ECS, Er3(SiO4)2Cl ) in the nanowire form, which facilitates the growth of high quality single crystals. Growth methods for such single crystal ECS nanowires have been established. Various structural and optical characterizations have been carried out. The high crystal quality of ECS material leads to a long lifetime of the first excited state of Er3+ ions up to 1 ms at Er density higher than 1022 cm-3. This Er lifetime-density product was found to be the largest among all Er containing materials. A unique integrating sphere method was developed to measure the absorption cross section of ECS nanowires from 440 to 1580 nm. Pump-probe experiments demonstrated a 644 dB/cm signal enhancement from a single ECS wire. It was estimated that such large signal enhancement can overcome the absorption to result in a net material gain, but not sufficient to compensate waveguide propagation loss. In order to suppress the upconversion process in ECS, Ytterbium (Yb) and Yttrium (Y) ions are introduced as substituent ions of Er in the ECS crystal structure to reduce Er density. While the addition of Yb ions only partially succeeded, erbium yttrium chloride silicate (EYCS) with controllable Er density was synthesized successfully. EYCS with 30 at. % Er was found to be the best. It shows the strongest PL emission at 1.5 μm, and thus can be potentially used as a high gain material.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013