Matching Items (8)

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System reconstruction via compressive sensing, complex-network dynamics and electron transport in graphene systems

Description

Complex dynamical systems consisting interacting dynamical units are ubiquitous in nature and society. Predicting and reconstructing nonlinear dynamics of units and the complex interacting networks among them serves the base for the understanding of a variety of collective dynamical phenomena.

Complex dynamical systems consisting interacting dynamical units are ubiquitous in nature and society. Predicting and reconstructing nonlinear dynamics of units and the complex interacting networks among them serves the base for the understanding of a variety of collective dynamical phenomena. I present a general method to address the two outstanding problems as a whole based solely on time-series measurements. The method is implemented by incorporating compressive sensing approach that enables an accurate reconstruction of complex dynamical systems in terms of both nodal equations that determines the self-dynamics of units and detailed coupling patterns among units. The representative advantages of the approach are (i) the sparse data requirement which allows for a successful reconstruction from limited measurements, and (ii) general applicability to identical and nonidentical nodal dynamics, and to networks with arbitrary interacting structure, strength and sizes. Another two challenging problem of significant interest in nonlinear dynamics: (i) predicting catastrophes in nonlinear dynamical systems in advance of their occurrences and (ii) predicting the future state for time-varying nonlinear dynamical systems, can be formulated and solved in the framework of compressive sensing using only limited measurements. Once the network structure can be inferred, the dynamics behavior on them can be investigated, for example optimize information spreading dynamics, suppress cascading dynamics and traffic congestion, enhance synchronization, game dynamics, etc. The results can yield insights to control strategies design in the real-world social and natural systems. Since 2004, there has been a tremendous amount of interest in graphene. The most amazing feature of graphene is that there exists linear energy-momentum relationship when energy is low. The quasi-particles inside the system can be treated as chiral, massless Dirac fermions obeying relativistic quantum mechanics. Therefore, the graphene provides one perfect test bed to investigate relativistic quantum phenomena, such as relativistic quantum chaotic scattering and abnormal electron paths induced by klein tunneling. This phenomenon has profound implications to the development of graphene based devices that require stable electronic properties.

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Date Created
2012

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Reconstruction-free inference from compressive measurements

Description

As a promising solution to the problem of acquiring and storing large amounts of image and video data, spatial-multiplexing camera architectures have received lot of attention in the recent past. Such architectures have the attractive feature of combining a two-ste

As a promising solution to the problem of acquiring and storing large amounts of image and video data, spatial-multiplexing camera architectures have received lot of attention in the recent past. Such architectures have the attractive feature of combining a two-step process of acquisition and compression of pixel measurements in a conventional camera, into a single step. A popular variant is the single-pixel camera that obtains measurements of the scene using a pseudo-random measurement matrix. Advances in compressive sensing (CS) theory in the past decade have supplied the tools that, in theory, allow near-perfect reconstruction of an image from these measurements even for sub-Nyquist sampling rates. However, current state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms suffer from two drawbacks -- They are (1) computationally very expensive and (2) incapable of yielding high fidelity reconstructions for high compression ratios. In computer vision, the final goal is usually to perform an inference task using the images acquired and not signal recovery. With this motivation, this thesis considers the possibility of inference directly from compressed measurements, thereby obviating the need to use expensive reconstruction algorithms. It is often the case that non-linear features are used for inference tasks in computer vision. However, currently, it is unclear how to extract such features from compressed measurements. Instead, using the theoretical basis provided by the Johnson-Lindenstrauss lemma, discriminative features using smashed correlation filters are derived and it is shown that it is indeed possible to perform reconstruction-free inference at high compression ratios with only a marginal loss in accuracy. As a specific inference problem in computer vision, face recognition is considered, mainly beyond the visible spectrum such as in the short wave infra-red region (SWIR), where sensors are expensive.

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Date Created
2015

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Building Constraints, Geometric Invariants and Interpretability in Deep Learning: Applications in Computational Imaging and Vision

Description

Over the last decade, deep neural networks also known as deep learning, combined with large databases and specialized hardware for computation, have made major strides in important areas such as computer vision, computational imaging and natural language processing. However, such

Over the last decade, deep neural networks also known as deep learning, combined with large databases and specialized hardware for computation, have made major strides in important areas such as computer vision, computational imaging and natural language processing. However, such frameworks currently suffer from some drawbacks. For example, it is generally not clear how the architectures are to be designed for different applications, or how the neural networks behave under different input perturbations and it is not easy to make the internal representations and parameters more interpretable. In this dissertation, I propose building constraints into feature maps, parameters and and design of algorithms involving neural networks for applications in low-level vision problems such as compressive imaging and multi-spectral image fusion, and high-level inference problems including activity and face recognition. Depending on the application, such constraints can be used to design architectures which are invariant/robust to certain nuisance factors, more efficient and, in some cases, more interpretable. Through extensive experiments on real-world datasets, I demonstrate these advantages of the proposed methods over conventional frameworks.

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Date Created
2019

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Computer Vision from Spatial-Multiplexing Cameras at Low Measurement Rates

Description

In UAVs and parking lots, it is typical to first collect an enormous number of pixels using conventional imagers. This is followed by employment of expensive methods to compress by throwing away redundant data. Subsequently, the compressed data is transmitted

In UAVs and parking lots, it is typical to first collect an enormous number of pixels using conventional imagers. This is followed by employment of expensive methods to compress by throwing away redundant data. Subsequently, the compressed data is transmitted to a ground station. The past decade has seen the emergence of novel imagers called spatial-multiplexing cameras, which offer compression at the sensing level itself by providing an arbitrary linear measurements of the scene instead of pixel-based sampling. In this dissertation, I discuss various approaches for effective information extraction from spatial-multiplexing measurements and present the trade-offs between reliability of the performance and computational/storage load of the system. In the first part, I present a reconstruction-free approach to high-level inference in computer vision, wherein I consider the specific case of activity analysis, and show that using correlation filters, one can perform effective action recognition and localization directly from a class of spatial-multiplexing cameras, called compressive cameras, even at very low measurement rates of 1\%. In the second part, I outline a deep learning based non-iterative and real-time algorithm to reconstruct images from compressively sensed (CS) measurements, which can outperform the traditional iterative CS reconstruction algorithms in terms of reconstruction quality and time complexity, especially at low measurement rates. To overcome the limitations of compressive cameras, which are operated with random measurements and not particularly tuned to any task, in the third part of the dissertation, I propose a method to design spatial-multiplexing measurements, which are tuned to facilitate the easy extraction of features that are useful in computer vision tasks like object tracking. The work presented in the dissertation provides sufficient evidence to high-level inference in computer vision at extremely low measurement rates, and hence allows us to think about the possibility of revamping the current day computer systems.

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Date Created
2017

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Compressive Visual Question Answering

Description

Compressive sensing theory allows to sense and reconstruct signals/images with lower sampling rate than Nyquist rate. Applications in resource constrained environment stand to benefit from this theory, opening up many possibilities for new applications at the same time. The traditional

Compressive sensing theory allows to sense and reconstruct signals/images with lower sampling rate than Nyquist rate. Applications in resource constrained environment stand to benefit from this theory, opening up many possibilities for new applications at the same time. The traditional inference pipeline for computer vision sequence reconstructing the image from compressive measurements. However,the reconstruction process is a computationally expensive step that also provides poor results at high compression rate. There have been several successful attempts to perform inference tasks directly on compressive measurements such as activity recognition. In this thesis, I am interested to tackle a more challenging vision problem - Visual question answering (VQA) without reconstructing the compressive images. I investigate the feasibility of this problem with a series of experiments, and I evaluate proposed methods on a VQA dataset and discuss promising results and direction for future work.

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Date Created
2017

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Reconstructing and cotrolling nonlinear complex systems

Description

The power of science lies in its ability to infer and predict the

existence of objects from which no direct information can be obtained

experimentally or observationally. A well known example is to

ascertain the existence of black holes of various masses in

The power of science lies in its ability to infer and predict the

existence of objects from which no direct information can be obtained

experimentally or observationally. A well known example is to

ascertain the existence of black holes of various masses in different

parts of the universe from indirect evidence, such as X-ray emissions.

In the field of complex networks, the problem of detecting

hidden nodes can be stated, as follows. Consider a network whose

topology is completely unknown but whose nodes consist of two types:

one accessible and another inaccessible from the outside world. The

accessible nodes can be observed or monitored, and it is assumed that time

series are available from each node in this group. The inaccessible

nodes are shielded from the outside and they are essentially

``hidden.'' The question is, based solely on the

available time series from the accessible nodes, can the existence and

locations of the hidden nodes be inferred? A completely data-driven,

compressive-sensing based method is developed to address this issue by utilizing

complex weighted networks of nonlinear oscillators, evolutionary game

and geospatial networks.

Both microbes and multicellular organisms actively regulate their cell

fate determination to cope with changing environments or to ensure

proper development. Here, the synthetic biology approaches are used to

engineer bistable gene networks to demonstrate that stochastic and

permanent cell fate determination can be achieved through initializing

gene regulatory networks (GRNs) at the boundary between dynamic

attractors. This is experimentally realized by linking a synthetic GRN

to a natural output of galactose metabolism regulation in yeast.

Combining mathematical modeling and flow cytometry, the

engineered systems are shown to be bistable and that inherent gene expression

stochasticity does not induce spontaneous state transitioning at

steady state. By interfacing rationally designed synthetic

GRNs with background gene regulation mechanisms, this work

investigates intricate properties of networks that illuminate possible

regulatory mechanisms for cell differentiation and development that

can be initiated from points of instability.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Bayesian Framework for Sparse Vector Recovery and Parameter Bounds with Application to Compressive Sensing

Description

Signal compressed using classical compression methods can be acquired using brute force (i.e. searching for non-zero entries in component-wise). However, sparse solutions require combinatorial searches of high computations. In this thesis, instead, two Bayesian approaches are considered to recover a

Signal compressed using classical compression methods can be acquired using brute force (i.e. searching for non-zero entries in component-wise). However, sparse solutions require combinatorial searches of high computations. In this thesis, instead, two Bayesian approaches are considered to recover a sparse vector from underdetermined noisy measurements. The first is constructed using a Bernoulli-Gaussian (BG) prior distribution and is assumed to be the true generative model. The second is constructed using a Gamma-Normal (GN) prior distribution and is, therefore, a different (i.e. misspecified) model. To estimate the posterior distribution for the correctly specified scenario, an algorithm based on generalized approximated message passing (GAMP) is constructed, while an algorithm based on sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) is used for the misspecified scenario. Recovering sparse signal using Bayesian framework is one class of algorithms to solve the sparse problem. All classes of algorithms aim to get around the high computations associated with the combinatorial searches. Compressive sensing (CS) is a widely-used terminology attributed to optimize the sparse problem and its applications. Applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), image acquisition in radar imaging, and facial recognition. In CS literature, the target vector can be recovered either by optimizing an objective function using point estimation, or recovering a distribution of the sparse vector using Bayesian estimation. Although Bayesian framework provides an extra degree of freedom to assume a distribution that is directly applicable to the problem of interest, it is hard to find a theoretical guarantee of convergence. This limitation has shifted some of researches to use a non-Bayesian framework. This thesis tries to close this gab by proposing a Bayesian framework with a suggested theoretical bound for the assumed, not necessarily correct, distribution. In the simulation study, a general lower Bayesian Cram\'er-Rao bound (BCRB) bound is extracted along with misspecified Bayesian Cram\'er-Rao bound (MBCRB) for GN model. Both bounds are validated using mean square error (MSE) performances of the aforementioned algorithms. Also, a quantification of the performance in terms of gains versus losses is introduced as one main finding of this report.

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Created

Date Created
2019

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Learning in Compressed Domains

Description

A massive volume of data is generated at an unprecedented rate in the information age. The growth of data significantly exceeds the computing and storage capacities of the existing digital infrastructure. In the past decade, many methods are invented for

A massive volume of data is generated at an unprecedented rate in the information age. The growth of data significantly exceeds the computing and storage capacities of the existing digital infrastructure. In the past decade, many methods are invented for data compression, compressive sensing and reconstruction, and compressed learning (learning directly upon compressed data) to overcome the data-explosion challenge. While prior works are predominantly model-based, focus on small models, and not suitable for task-oriented sensing or hardware acceleration, the number of available models for compression-related tasks has escalated by orders of magnitude in the past decade. Motivated by this significant growth and the success of big data, this dissertation proposes to revolutionize both the compressive sensing reconstruction (CSR) and compressed learning (CL) methods from the data-driven perspective. In this dissertation, a series of topics on data-driven CSR are discussed. Individual data-driven models are proposed for the CSR of bio-signals, images, and videos with improved compression ratio and recovery fidelity trade-off. Specifically, a scalable Laplacian pyramid reconstructive adversarial network (LAPRAN) is proposed for single-image CSR. LAPRAN progressively reconstructs images following the concept of the Laplacian pyramid through the concatenation of multiple reconstructive adversarial networks (RANs). For the CSR of videos, CSVideoNet is proposed to improve the spatial-temporal resolution of reconstructed videos. Apart from CSR, data-driven CL is discussed in the dissertation. A CL framework is proposed to extract features directly from compressed data for image classification, objection detection, and semantic/instance segmentation. Besides, the spectral bias of neural networks is analyzed from the frequency perspective, leading to a learning-based frequency selection method for identifying the trivial frequency components which can be removed without accuracy loss. Compared with the conventional spatial downsampling approaches, the proposed frequency-domain learning method can achieve higher accuracy with reduced input data size. The methodologies proposed in this dissertation are not restricted to the above-mentioned applications. The dissertation also discusses other potential applications and directions for future research.

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Date Created
2021