Matching Items (4)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

150787-Thumbnail Image.png

Structural characterization of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductor heterostructures and superlattices

Description

The research described in this dissertation has involved the use of transmission electron microcopy (TEM) to characterize the structural properties of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductor heterostructures and superlattices. The

The research described in this dissertation has involved the use of transmission electron microcopy (TEM) to characterize the structural properties of II-VI and III-V compound semiconductor heterostructures and superlattices. The microstructure of thick ZnTe epilayers (~2.4 µm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) under virtually identical conditions on GaSb, InAs, InP and GaAs (100) substrates were compared using TEM. High-resolution electron micrographs revealed a highly coherent interface for the ZnTe/GaSb sample, and showed extensive areas with well-separated interfacial misfit dislocations for the ZnTe/InAs sample. Lomer edge dislocations and 60o dislocations were commonly observed at the interfaces of the ZnTe/InP and ZnTe/GaAs samples. The amount of residual strain at the interfaces was estimated to be 0.01% for the ZnTe/InP sample and -0.09% for the ZnTe/GaAs sample. Strong PL spectra for all ZnTe samples were observed from 80 to 300 K. High quality GaSb grown by MBE on ZnTe/GaSb (001) virtual substrates with a temperature ramp at the beginning of the GaSb growth has been demonstrated. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed clear Pendellösung thickness fringes from both GaSb and ZnTe epilayers. Cross-section TEM images showed excellent crystallinity and smooth morphology for both ZnTe/GaSb and GaSb/ZnTe interfaces. Plan-view TEM image revealed the presence of Lomer dislocations at the interfaces and threading dislocations in the top GaSb layer. The defect density was estimated to be ~1 x107/cm2. The PL spectra showed improved optical properties when using the GaSb transition layer grown on ZnTe with a temperature ramp. The structural properties of strain-balanced InAs/InAs1-xSbx SLs grown on GaSb (001) substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and MBE, have been studied using XRD and TEM. Excellent structural quality of the InAs/InAs1-xSbx SLs grown by MOCVD has been demonstrated. Well-defined ordered-alloy structures within individual InAs1-xSbx layers were observed for samples grown by modulated MBE. However, the ordering disappeared when defects propagating through the SL layers appeared during growth. For samples grown by conventional MBE, high-resolution images revealed that interfaces for InAs1-xSbx grown on InAs layers were sharper than for InAs grown on InAs1-xSbx layers, most likely due to a Sb surfactant segregation effect.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

154755-Thumbnail Image.png

Growth, optical properties, and optimization of infrared optoelectronic materials

Description

High-performance III-V semiconductors based on ternary alloys and superlattice systems are fabricated, studied, and compared for infrared optoelectronic applications. InAsBi is a ternary alloy near the GaSb lattice constant

High-performance III-V semiconductors based on ternary alloys and superlattice systems are fabricated, studied, and compared for infrared optoelectronic applications. InAsBi is a ternary alloy near the GaSb lattice constant that is not as thoroughly investigated as other III-V alloys and that is challenging to produce as Bi has a tendency to surface segregate and form droplets during growth rather than incorporate. A growth window is identified within which high-quality droplet-free bulk InAsBi is produced and Bi mole fractions up to 6.4% are obtained. Photoluminescence with high internal quantum efficiency is observed from InAs/InAsBi quantum wells. The high structural and optical quality of the InAsBi materials examined demonstrates that bulk, quantum well, and superlattice structures utilizing InAsBi are an important design option for efficient infrared coverage.

Another important infrared material system is InAsSb and the strain-balanced InAs/InAsSb superlattice on GaSb. Detailed examination of X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and spectroscopic ellipsometry data provides the temperature and composition dependent bandgap of bulk InAsSb. The unintentional incorporation of approximately 1% Sb into the InAs layers of the superlattice is measured and found to significantly impact the analysis of the InAs/InAsSb band alignment. In the analysis of the absorption spectra, the ground state absorption coefficient and transition strength of the superlattice are proportional to the square of the electron-hole wavefunction overlap; wavefunction overlap is therefore a major design parameter in terms of optimizing absorption in these materials. Furthermore in addition to improvements through design optimization, the optical quality of the materials studied is found to be positively enhanced with the use of Bi as a surfactant during molecular beam epitaxy growth.

A software tool is developed that calculates and optimizes the miniband structure of semiconductor superlattices, including bismide-based designs. The software has the capability to limit results to designs that can be produced with high structural and optical quality, and optimized designs in terms of maximizing absorption are identified for several infrared superlattice systems at the GaSb lattice constant. The accuracy of the software predictions are tested with the design and growth of an optimized mid-wave infrared InAs/InAsSb superlattice which exhibits superior optical and absorption properties.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

150535-Thumbnail Image.png

Strain-balanced InAs-InAsSb type-II superlattices on GaSb substrates for infrared photodetector applications

Description

Infrared photodetectors, used in applications for sensing and imaging, such as military target recognition, chemical/gas detection, and night vision enhancement, are predominantly comprised of an expensive II-VI material, HgCdTe. III-V

Infrared photodetectors, used in applications for sensing and imaging, such as military target recognition, chemical/gas detection, and night vision enhancement, are predominantly comprised of an expensive II-VI material, HgCdTe. III-V type-II superlattices (SLs) have been studied as viable alternatives for HgCdTe due to the SL advantages over HgCdTe: greater control of the alloy composition, resulting in more uniform materials and cutoff wavelengths across the wafer; stronger bonds and structural stability; less expensive substrates, i.e., GaSb; mature III-V growth and processing technologies; lower band-to-band tunneling due to larger electron effective masses; and reduced Auger recombination enabling operation at higher temperatures and longer wavelengths. However, the dark current of InAs/Ga1-xInxSb SL detectors is higher than that of HgCdTe detectors and limited by Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination rather than Auger recombination. This dissertation work focuses on InAs/InAs1-xSbx SLs, another promising alternative for infrared laser and detector applications due to possible lower SRH recombination and the absence of gallium, which simplifies the SL interfaces and growth processes. InAs/InAs1-xSbx SLs strain-balanced to GaSb substrates were designed for the mid- and long-wavelength infrared (MWIR and LWIR) spectral ranges and were grown using MOCVD and MBE by various groups. Detailed characterization using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and photoconductance revealed the excellent structural and optical properties of the MBE materials. Two key material parameters were studied in detail: the valence band offset (VBO) and minority carrier lifetime. The VBO between InAs and InAs1-xSbx strained on GaSb with x = 0.28 - 0.41 was best described by Qv = ÄEv/ÄEg = 1.75 ± 0.03. Time-resolved PL experiments on a LWIR SL revealed a lifetime of 412 ns at 77 K, one order of magnitude greater than that of InAs/Ga1-xInxSb LWIR SLs due to less SRH recombination. MWIR SLs also had 100's of ns lifetimes that were dominated by radiative recombination due to shorter periods and larger wave function overlaps. These results allow InAs/InAs1-xSbx SLs to be designed for LWIR photodetectors with minority carrier lifetimes approaching those of HgCdTe, lower dark currents, and higher operating temperatures.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

154102-Thumbnail Image.png

Study of structural, optical and electrical properties of InAs/InAsSb superlattices using multiple characterization techniques

Description

InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) can be considered as potential alternatives for conventional HgCdTe photodetectors due to improved uniformity, lower manufacturing costs with larger substrates, and possibly better device performance. This

InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) can be considered as potential alternatives for conventional HgCdTe photodetectors due to improved uniformity, lower manufacturing costs with larger substrates, and possibly better device performance. This dissertation presents a comprehensive study on the structural, optical and electrical properties of InAs/InAsSb T2SLs grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

The effects of different growth conditions on the structural quality were thoroughly investigated. Lattice-matched condition was successfully achieved and material of exceptional quality was demonstrated.

After growth optimization had been achieved, structural defects could hardly be detected, so different characterization techniques, including etch-pit-density (EPD) measurements, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and X-ray topography (XRT), were explored, in attempting to gain better knowledge of the sparsely distributed defects. EPD revealed the distribution of dislocation-associated pits across the wafer. Unfortunately, the lack of contrast in images obtained by CL imaging and XRT indicated their inability to provide any quantitative information about defect density in these InAs/InAsSb T2SLs.

The nBn photodetectors based on mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) InAs/InAsSb T2SLs were fabricated. The significant difference in Ga composition in the barrier layer coupled with different dark current behavior, suggested the possibility of different types of band alignment between the barrier layers and the absorbers. A positive charge density of 1.8 × 1017/cm3 in the barrier of MWIR nBn photodetector, as determined by electron holography, confirmed the presence of a potential well in its valence band, thus identifying type-II alignment. In contrast, the LWIR nBn photodetector was shown to have type-I alignment because no sign of positive charge was detected in its barrier.

Capacitance-voltage measurements were performed to investigate the temperature dependence of carrier densities in a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure based on MWIR InAs/InAsSb T2SLs, and a nBn structure based on LWIR InAs/InAsSb T2SLs. No carrier freeze-out was observed in either sample, indicating very shallow donor levels. The decrease in carrier density when temperature increased was attributed to the increased density of holes that had been thermally excited from localized states near the oxide/semiconductor interface in the MOS sample. No deep-level traps were revealed in deep-level transient spectroscopy temperature scans.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015