Matching Items (13)

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Numerical simulation of environmental flow over urban landscape for applications to renewable energy

Description

Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among environmental organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global warming. One fast

Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among environmental organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global warming. One fast growing renewable energy solution is the application of wind energy in cities. To qualitative and quantitative predict wind turbine performance in urban areas, CFD simulation is performed on real-life urban geometry and wind velocity profiles are evaluated. Two geometries in Arizona is selected in this thesis to demonstrate the influence of building heights; one of the simulation models, ASU campus, is relatively low rise and without significant tall buildings; the other model, the downtown phoenix model, are high-rise and with greater building height difference. The content of this thesis focuses on using RANS computational fluid dynamics approach to simulate wind acceleration phenomenon in two complex geometries, ASU campus and Phoenix downtown model. Additionally, acceleration ratio and locations are predicted, the results are then used to calculate the best location for small wind turbine installments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Climate Change Effects on Electricity Generation from Hydropower, Wind, Solar and Thermal Power Plants

Description

Climate change is affecting power generation globally. Increase in the ambient air

temperature due to the emission of greenhouse gases, caused mainly by burning of fossil fuels, is the most prominent

Climate change is affecting power generation globally. Increase in the ambient air

temperature due to the emission of greenhouse gases, caused mainly by burning of fossil fuels, is the most prominent reason for this effect. This increase in the temperature along with the changing precipitation levels has led to the melting of the snow packs and increase in the evaporation levels, thus affecting hydropower. The hydropower in the United States might increase by 8%-60% due to Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively by 2050. Wind power generation is mainly affected by the change in the wind speed and solar power generation is mainly affected by the increase in the ambient air temperature, changes in precipitation and solar radiation. Solar power output reduces by approximately a total of 2.5 billion kilowatt- hour (kWh) by 2050 for an increase in ambient air temperature of 1 degree Celsius. Increase in the ambient air and water temperature mainly affect the thermal power generation. An increase in the temperature as per the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate change scenarios could decrease the total thermal power generation in the United States by an average of 26 billion kWh and a possible income loss of around 1.5 billion dollars. This thesis discusses the various effects of climate change on each of these four power plant types.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Methodology for Identifying Inverter-based Renewable Generation Penetration Threshold in a Power System

Description

Energy is one of the wheels on which the modern world runs. Therefore, standards and limits have been devised to maintain the stability and reliability of the power grid. This

Energy is one of the wheels on which the modern world runs. Therefore, standards and limits have been devised to maintain the stability and reliability of the power grid. This research shows a simple methodology for increasing the amount of Inverter-based Renewable Generation (IRG), which is also known as Inverter-based Resources (IBR), for that considers the voltage and frequency limits specified by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Transmission Planning (TPL) criteria, and the tie line power flow limits between the area-under-study and its neighbors under contingency conditions. A WECC power flow and dynamic file is analyzed and modified in this research to demonstrate the performance of the methodology. GE's Positive Sequence Load Flow (PSLF) software is used to conduct this research and Python was used to analyze the output data.

The thesis explains in detail how the system with 11% of IRG operated before conducting any adjustments (addition of IRG) and what procedures were modified to make the system run correctly. The adjustments made to the dynamic models are also explained in depth to give a clearer picture of how each adjustment affects the system performance. A list of proposed IRG units along with their locations were provided by SRP, a power utility in Arizona, which were to be integrated into the power flow and dynamic files. In the process of finding the maximum IRG penetration threshold, three sensitivities were also considered, namely, momentary cessation due to low voltages, transmission vs. distribution connected solar generation, and stalling of induction motors. Finally, the thesis discusses how the system reacts to the aforementioned modifications, and how IRG penetration threshold gets adjusted with regards to the different sensitivities applied to the system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Dispatch of bulk energy storage in power systems with wind generation

Description

This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy

This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy storage systems which can serve many applications like economically meeting peak loads, providing spinning reserve. Economic dispatch is performed with bulk energy storage with wind energy penetration in power systems allocating the generation levels to the units in the mix, so that the system load is served and most economically. The results obtained in previous research to solve for economic dispatch uses a linear cost function for a Direct Current Optimal Power Flow (DCOPF). This thesis uses quadratic cost function for a DCOPF implementing quadratic programming (QP) to minimize the function. A Matlab program was created to simulate different test systems including an equivalent section of the WECC system, namely for Arizo-na, summer peak 2009. A mathematical formulation of a strategy of when to charge or discharge the storage is incorporated in the algorithm. In this thesis various test cases are shown in a small three bus test bed and also for the state of Arizona test bed. The main conclusions drawn from the two test beds is that the use of energy storage minimizes the generation dispatch cost of the system and benefits the power sys-tem by serving the peak partially from stored energy. It is also found that use of energy storage systems may alleviate the loading on transmission lines which can defer the upgrade and expansion of the transmission system.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A power system reliability evaluation technique and education tool for wind energy integration

Description

This thesis is focused on the study of wind energy integration and is divided into two segments. The first part of the thesis deals with developing a reliability evaluation technique

This thesis is focused on the study of wind energy integration and is divided into two segments. The first part of the thesis deals with developing a reliability evaluation technique for a wind integrated power system. A multiple-partial outage model is utilized to accurately calculate the wind generation availability. A methodology is presented to estimate the outage probability of wind generators while incorporating their reduced power output levels at low wind speeds. Subsequently, power system reliability is assessed by calculating the loss of load probability (LOLP) and the effect of wind integration on the overall system is analyzed. Actual generation and load data of the Texas power system in 2008 are used to construct a test case. To demonstrate the robustness of the method, relia-bility studies have been conducted for a fairly constant as well as for a largely varying wind generation profile. Further, the case of increased wind generation penetration level has been simulated and comments made about the usability of the proposed method to aid in power system planning in scenarios of future expansion of wind energy infrastructure. The second part of this thesis explains the development of a graphic user interface (GUI) to demonstrate the operation of a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). The theory of DFIG and its back-to-back power converter is described. The GUI illustrates the power flow, behavior of the electrical circuit and the maximum power point tracking of the machine for a variable wind speed input provided by the user. The tool, although developed on MATLAB software platform, has been constructed to work as a standalone application on Windows operating system based computer and enables even the non-engineering students to access it. Results of both the segments of the thesis are discussed. Remarks are presented about the validity of the reliability technique and GUI interface for variable wind speed conditions. Improvements have been suggested to enable the use of the reliability technique for a more elaborate system. Recommendations have been made about expanding the features of the GUI tool and to use it to promote educational interest about renewable power engineering.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Numerical simulation of environmental flow over buildings for renewable energy application

Description

For the increasing concerns of influence on environment by fossil-electricity generation, application of renewable energy becomes one of the most focused issues in society. Based on the limitation on urban

For the increasing concerns of influence on environment by fossil-electricity generation, application of renewable energy becomes one of the most focused issues in society. Based on the limitation on urban environment, wind turbines, which can be mounted on rooftop or between buildings, are regarded as a feasible way for wind energy generation. This study presents wind flow simulations in a large-scale environment with certain dimension buildings. Different inlet velocity boundary conditions are tested firstly, and the non-uniform inlet boundary condition shows better agreement with realistic situation. Turbulence intensity is set to be 10% for comparison consistency. The k-epsilon turbulence model is regarded as a better simulation for this certain condition. After that, three different structures, which include single building, pristine double building and modified circular gap double building systems, are tested in this environment condition. The result shows 18.8% velocity increasing on the top of single building system. Pristine double building systems are tested with 4 different gap distances, and building with 10 meters gap achieved the best velocity condition, which 32.8% velocity increasing and 11.8% improvement comparing to single building system, respectively. But the location of maximum velocity moves to the gap and the maximum velocity on the rooftop of double building system is approximately 5.1% lower than single building system. Based on previous study, modified circular gap double building system is created with 10 meters gap. Comparing result with single building system, modified circular gap system achieves higher improvement for wind flow, whose improvement of velocity increasing in the gap and on the rooftop of building are 47.1% and 3.0%, respectively. As a result, the modified circular gap double building can be regarded as a high efficiency system of environmental wind flow over buildings for renewable energy system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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CFD analysis of wind power potential across rooftop gaps of tall buildings

Description

This study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling to analyze the

dependence of wind power potential and turbulence intensity on aerodynamic design of a

special type of building with a nuzzle-like ga

This study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling to analyze the

dependence of wind power potential and turbulence intensity on aerodynamic design of a

special type of building with a nuzzle-like gap at its rooftop. Numerical simulations using

ANSYS Fluent are carried out to quantify the above-mentioned dependency due to three

major geometric parameters of the building: (i) the height of the building, (ii) the depth of

the roof-top gap, and (iii) the width of the roof-top gap. The height of the building is varied

from 8 m to 24 m. Likewise, the gap depth is varied from 3 m to 5 m and the gap width

from 2 m to 4 m. The aim of this entire research is to relate these geometric parameters of

the building to the maximum value and the spatial pattern of wind power potential across

the roof-top gap. These outcomes help guide the design of the roof-top geometry for wind

power applications and determine the ideal position for mounting a micro wind turbine.

From these outcomes, it is suggested that the wind power potential is greatly affected by

the increasing gap width or gap depth. It, however, remains insensitive to the increasing

building height, unlike turbulence intensity which increases with increasing building

height. After performing a set of simulations with varying building geometry to quantify

the wind power potential before the installation of a turbine, another set of simulations is

conducted by installing a static turbine within the roof-top gap. The results from the latter

are used to further adjust the estimate of wind power potential. Recommendations are made

for future applications based on the findings from the numerical simulations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Flexible reserve margin optimization for increased wind generation penetration

Description

Large-scale integration of wind generation introduces planning and operational difficulties due to the intermittent and highly variable nature of wind. In particular, the generation from non-hydro renewable resources is inherently

Large-scale integration of wind generation introduces planning and operational difficulties due to the intermittent and highly variable nature of wind. In particular, the generation from non-hydro renewable resources is inherently variable and often times difficult to predict. Integrating significant amounts of renewable generation, thus, presents a challenge to the power systems operators, requiring additional flexibility, which may incur a decrease of conventional generation capacity.

This research investigates the algorithms employing emerging computational advances in system operation policies that can improve the flexibility of the electricity industry. The focus of this study is on flexible operation policies for renewable generation, particularly wind generation. Specifically, distributional forecasts of windfarm generation are used to dispatch a “discounted” amount of the wind generation, leaving a reserve margin that can be used for reserve if needed. This study presents systematic mathematic formulations that allow the operator incorporate this flexibility into the operation optimization model to increase the benefits in the energy and reserve scheduling procedure. Incorporating this formulation into the dispatch optimization problem provides the operator with the ability of using forecasted probability distributions as well as the off-line generated policies to choose proper approaches for operating the system in real-time. Methods to generate such policies are discussed and a forecast-based approach for developing wind margin policies is presented. The impacts of incorporating such policies in the electricity market models are also investigated.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Enhanced power system operational performance with anticipatory control under increased penetration of wind energy

Description

As the world embraces a sustainable energy future, alternative energy resources, such as wind power, are increasingly being seen as an integral part of the future electric energy grid. Ultimately,

As the world embraces a sustainable energy future, alternative energy resources, such as wind power, are increasingly being seen as an integral part of the future electric energy grid. Ultimately, integrating such a dynamic and variable mix of generation requires a better understanding of renewable generation output, in addition to power grid systems that improve power system operational performance in the presence of anticipated events such as wind power ramps. Because of the stochastic, uncontrollable nature of renewable resources, a thorough and accurate characterization of wind activity is necessary to maintain grid stability and reliability. Wind power ramps from an existing wind farm are studied to characterize persistence forecasting errors using extreme value analysis techniques. In addition, a novel metric that quantifies the amount of non-stationarity in time series wind power data was proposed and used in a real-time algorithm to provide a rigorous method that adaptively determines training data for forecasts. Lastly, large swings in generation or load can cause system frequency and tie-line flows to deviate from nominal, so an anticipatory MPC-based secondary control scheme was designed and integrated into an automatic generation control loop to improve the ability of an interconnection to respond to anticipated large events and fluctuations in the power system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Short-term wind power forecasts using Doppler lidar

Description

With a ground-based Doppler lidar on the upwind side of a wind farm in the Tehachapi Pass of California, radial wind velocity measurements were collected for repeating sector sweeps, scanning

With a ground-based Doppler lidar on the upwind side of a wind farm in the Tehachapi Pass of California, radial wind velocity measurements were collected for repeating sector sweeps, scanning up to 10 kilometers away. This region consisted of complex terrain, with the scans made between mountains. The dataset was utilized for techniques being studied for short-term forecasting of wind power by correlating changes in energy content and of turbulence intensity by tracking spatial variance, in the wind ahead of a wind farm. A ramp event was also captured and its propagation was tracked.

Orthogonal horizontal wind vectors were retrieved from the radial velocity using a sector Velocity Azimuth Display method. Streamlines were plotted to determine the potential sites for a correlation of upstream wind speed with wind speed at downstream locations near the wind farm. A "virtual wind turbine" was "placed" in locations along the streamline by using the time-series velocity data at the location as the input to a modeled wind turbine, to determine the extractable energy content at that location. The relationship between this time-dependent energy content upstream and near the wind farm was studied. By correlating the energy content with each upstream location based on a time shift estimated according to advection at the mean wind speed, several fits were evaluated. A prediction of the downstream energy content was produced by shifting the power output in time and applying the best-fit function. This method made predictions of the power near the wind farm several minutes in advance. Predictions were also made up to an hour in advance for a large ramp event. The Magnitude Absolute Error and Standard Deviation are presented for the predictions based on each selected upstream location.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014