Matching Items (8)

150799-Thumbnail Image.png

Comparison of public private partnership with traditional delivery methods in highway construction industry

Description

Public-Private Partnerships (P3) in North America have become a trend in the past two decades and are gaining attention in the transportation industry with some large scale projects being delivered

Public-Private Partnerships (P3) in North America have become a trend in the past two decades and are gaining attention in the transportation industry with some large scale projects being delivered by this approach. This is due to the need for alternative funding sources for public projects and for improved efficiency of these projects in order to save time and money. Several research studies have been done, including mature markets in Europe and Australia, on the cost and schedule performance of transportation projects but no similar study has been conducted in North America. This study focuses on cost and schedule performance of twelve P3 transportation projects during their construction phase, costing over $100 million each, consisting of roads and bridges only with no signature tunnels. The P3 approach applied in this study is the Design-Build-Finance-Operate-Maintain (DBFOM) model and the results obtained are compared with similar research studies on North American Design-Build (DB) and Design-Bid-Build (DBB) projects. The schedule performance for P3 projects in this study was found to be -0.23 percent versus estimated as compared to the 4.34 percent for the DBB projects and 11.04 percent for the DB projects in the Shrestha study, indicating P3 projects are completed in less time than other methods. The cost performance in this study was 0.81 percent for the P3 projects while in the Shrestha study the average cost increase for the four DB projects was found to be 1.49 percent while for the DBB projects it was 12.71 percent, again indicating P3 projects reduce cost compared to other delivery approaches. The limited number of projects available for this study does not allow us to draw an explicit conclusion on the performance of P3s in North America but paves the way for future studies to explore more data as it becomes available. However, the results in this study show that P3 projects have good cost and schedule adherence to the contract requirements. This study gives us an initial comparison of P3 performance with the more traditional approach and shows us the empirical benefits and limitations of the P3 approach in the highway construction industry.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

152852-Thumbnail Image.png

Transit-oriented smart growth can reduce life-cycle environmental impacts and household costs in Los Angeles

Description

The environmental and economic assessment of neighborhood-scale transit-oriented urban form changes should include initial construction impacts through long-term use to fully understand the benefits and costs of smart growth policies.

The environmental and economic assessment of neighborhood-scale transit-oriented urban form changes should include initial construction impacts through long-term use to fully understand the benefits and costs of smart growth policies. The long-term impacts of moving people closer to transit require the coupling of behavioral forecasting with environmental assessment. Using new light rail and bus rapid transit in Los Angeles, California as a case study, a life-cycle environmental and economic assessment is developed to assess the potential range of impacts resulting from mixed-use infill development. An integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment framework is developed to estimate energy consumption, air emissions, and economic (public, developer, and user) costs. Residential and commercial buildings, automobile travel, and transit operation changes are included and a 60-year forecast is developed that compares transit-oriented growth against growth in areas without close access to high-capacity transit service. The results show that commercial developments create the greatest potential for impact reductions followed by residential commute shifts to transit, both of which may be effected by access to high-capacity transit, reduced parking requirements, and developer incentives. Greenhouse gas emission reductions up to 470 Gg CO2-equivalents per year can be achieved with potential costs savings for TOD users. The potential for respiratory impacts (PM10-equivalents) and smog formation can be reduced by 28-35%. The shift from business-as-usual growth to transit-oriented development can decrease user costs by $3,100 per household per year over the building lifetime, despite higher rental costs within the mixed-use development.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

153566-Thumbnail Image.png

What Tempe bicycle advocates can learn from the Dutch: lessons from one of the world's most bicycle friendly cities

Description

The city of Groningen in the Netherlands is often referred to as the "world cycling city" because over fifty percent of trips are made on bicycles (Van Hoven & Elzinga,

The city of Groningen in the Netherlands is often referred to as the "world cycling city" because over fifty percent of trips are made on bicycles (Van Hoven & Elzinga, 2009). On the contrary, just four percent of trips in Tempe, Arizona are on bicycles (McKenzie, 2014). Through a series of interviews and surveys, this study investigates what causes such high bicycling rates in Groningen and applies these findings to Tempe. The results suggest that Groningen experiences high bicycling rates because the city uses "carrot" and "stick" policies to encourage bicycling and discourage driving. It is therefore recommended that Tempe adopt both types of policies to raise bicycling levels.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

152795-Thumbnail Image.png

Demographic evolution modeling system for activity-based travel behavior analysis and demand forecasting

Description

The activity-based approach to travel demand analysis and modeling, which has been developed over the past 30 years, has received tremendous success in transportation planning and policy analysis issues, capturing

The activity-based approach to travel demand analysis and modeling, which has been developed over the past 30 years, has received tremendous success in transportation planning and policy analysis issues, capturing the multi-way joint relationships among socio-demographic, economic, land use characteristics, activity participation, and travel behavior. The development of synthesizing population with an array of socio-demographic and socio-economic attributes has drawn remarkable attention due to privacy and cost constraints in collecting and disclosing full scale data. Although, there has been enormous progress in producing synthetic population, there has been less progress in the development of population evolution modeling arena to forecast future year population. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a well-structured full-fledged demographic evolution modeling system, capturing migration dynamics and evolution of person level attributes, introducing the concept of new household formations and apprehending the dynamics of household level long-term choices over time. A comprehensive study has been conducted on demography, sociology, anthropology, economics and transportation engineering area to better understand the dynamics of evolutionary activities over time and their impacts in travel behavior. This dissertation describes the methodology and the conceptual framework, and the development of model components. Demographic, socio-economic, and land use data from American Community Survey, National Household Travel Survey, Census PUMS, United States Time Series Economic Dynamic data and United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention have been used in this research. The entire modeling system has been implemented and coded using programming language to develop the population evolution module named `PopEvol' into a computer simulation environment. The module then has been demonstrated for a portion of Maricopa County area in Arizona to predict the milestone year population to check the accuracy of forecasting. The module has also been used to evolve the base year population for next 15 years and the evolutionary trend has been investigated.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

153239-Thumbnail Image.png

A network-sensitive integrated travel model for simulating impacts of real-time traveler information

Description

Real-time information systems are being used widely around the world to mitigate the adverse impacts of congestion and events that contribute to network delay. It is important that transportation modeling

Real-time information systems are being used widely around the world to mitigate the adverse impacts of congestion and events that contribute to network delay. It is important that transportation modeling tools be able to accurately model the impacts of real-time information provision. Such planning tools allow the simulation of the impacts of various real-time information systems, and the design of traveler information systems that can minimize impacts of congestion and network disruptions. Such modeling tools would also be helpful in planning emergency response services as well as evacuation scenarios in the event of a natural disaster. Transportation modeling tools currently in use are quite limited in their ability to model the impacts of real-time information provision on travel demand and route choices. This dissertation research focuses on enhancing a previously developed integrated transportation modeling system dubbed SimTRAVEL (Simulator of Transport, Routes, Activities, Vehicles, Emissions, and Land) to incorporate capabilities that allow the simulation of the impacts of real-time traveler information systems on activity-travel demand. The first enhancement made to the SimTRAVEL framework involves the ability to reflect the effects of providing information on prevailing (as opposed to historical) network conditions on activity-travel behavior choices. In addition, the model system is enhanced to accommodate multiple user information classes (pre-trip and enroute) simultaneously. The second major contribution involves advancing the methodological framework to model enroute decision making processes where a traveler may alter his or her travel choices (such as destination choice) while enroute to an intended destination. Travelers who are provided up-to-date network information may choose to alter their destination in response to congested conditions, or completely abandon and reschedule an activity that offers some degree of flexibility. In this dissertation research, the model framework is developed and an illustrative demonstration of the capabilities of the enhanced model system is provided using a subregion of the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area in Arizona. The results show that the model is able to simulate adjustments in travel choices that may result from the introduction of real-time traveler information. The efficacy of the integrated travel model system is also demonstrated through the application of the enhanced model system to evaluate transportation policy scenarios.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

153221-Thumbnail Image.png

A tour level stop scheduling framework and a vehicle type choice model system for activity based travel forecasting

Description

This dissertation research contributes to the advancement of activity-based travel forecasting models along two lines of inquiry. First, the dissertation aims to introduce a continuous-time representation of activity participation in

This dissertation research contributes to the advancement of activity-based travel forecasting models along two lines of inquiry. First, the dissertation aims to introduce a continuous-time representation of activity participation in tour-based model systems in practice. Activity-based travel demand forecasting model systems in practice today are largely tour-based model systems that simulate individual daily activity-travel patterns through the prediction of day-level and tour-level activity agendas. These tour level activity-based models adopt a discrete time representation of activities and sequence the activities within tours using rule-based heuristics. An alternate stream of activity-based model systems mostly confined to the research arena are activity scheduling systems that adopt an evolutionary continuous-time approach to model activity participation subject to time-space prism constraints. In this research, a tour characterization framework capable of simulating and sequencing activities in tours along the continuous time dimension is developed and implemented using readily available travel survey data. The proposed framework includes components for modeling the multitude of secondary activities (stops) undertaken as part of the tour, the time allocated to various activities in a tour, and the sequence in which the activities are pursued.

Second, the dissertation focuses on the implementation of a vehicle fleet composition model component that can be used not only to simulate the mix of vehicle types owned by households but also to identify the specific vehicle that will be used for a specific tour. Virtually all of the activity-based models in practice only model the choice of mode without due consideration of the type of vehicle used on a tour. In this research effort, a comprehensive vehicle fleet composition model system is developed and implemented. In addition, a primary driver allocation model and a tour-level vehicle type choice model are developed and estimated with a view to advancing the ability to track household vehicle usage through the course of a day within activity-based travel model systems. It is envisioned that these advances will enhance the fidelity of activity-based travel model systems in practice.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

153149-Thumbnail Image.png

A study of university student travel behavior

Description

Institutions of higher education, particularly those with large student enrollments, constitute special generators that contribute in a variety of ways to the travel demand in a region. Despite the importance

Institutions of higher education, particularly those with large student enrollments, constitute special generators that contribute in a variety of ways to the travel demand in a region. Despite the importance of university population travel characteristics in understanding and modeling activity-travel patterns and mode choice behavior in a region, such populations remain under-studied. As metropolitan planning organizations continue to improve their regional travel models by incorporating processes and parameters specific to major regional special generators, university population travel characteristics need to be measured and special submodels that capture their behavior need to be developed. The research presented herein begins by documenting the design and administration of a comprehensive university student online travel and mode use survey that was administered at Arizona State University (ASU) in the Greater Phoenix region of Arizona. The dissertation research offers a detailed statistical analysis of student travel behavior for different student market segments. A framework is then presented for incorporating university student travel into a regional travel demand model. The application of the framework to the ASU student population is documented in detail. A comprehensive university student submodel was estimated and calibrated for integration with the full regional travel model system. Finally, student attitudes toward travel are analyzed and used as explanatory factors in multinomial logit models of mode choice. This analysis presents an examination of the extent to which attitudes play a role in explaining mode choice behavior of university students in an urban setting. The research provides evidence that student travel patterns vary substantially from those of the rest of the population, and should therefore be considered separately when forecasting travel demand and formulating transport policy in areas where universities are major contributors to regional travel.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

150506-Thumbnail Image.png

Integrated model of the urban continuum with dynamic time-dependent activity-travel microsimulation: framework, prototype, and implementation

Description

The development of microsimulation approaches to urban systems modeling has occurred largely in three parallel streams of research, namely, land use, travel demand and traffic assignment. However, there are important

The development of microsimulation approaches to urban systems modeling has occurred largely in three parallel streams of research, namely, land use, travel demand and traffic assignment. However, there are important dependencies and inter-relationships between the model systems which need to be accounted to accurately and comprehensively model the urban system. Location choices affect household activity-travel behavior, household activity-travel behavior affects network level of service (performance), and network level of service, in turn, affects land use and activity-travel behavior. The development of conceptual designs and operational frameworks that represent such complex inter-relationships in a consistent fashion across behavioral units, geographical entities, and temporal scales has proven to be a formidable challenge. In this research, an integrated microsimulation modeling framework called SimTRAVEL (Simulator of Transport, Routes, Activities, Vehicles, Emissions, and Land) that integrates the component model systems in a behaviorally consistent fashion, is presented. The model system is designed such that the activity-travel behavior model and the dynamic traffic assignment model are able to communicate with one another along continuous time with a view to simulate emergent activity-travel patterns in response to dynamically changing network conditions. The dissertation describes the operational framework, presents the modeling methodologies, and offers an extensive discussion on the advantages that such a framework may provide for analyzing the impacts of severe network disruptions on activity-travel choices. A prototype of the model system is developed and implemented for a portion of the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area in Arizona to demonstrate the capabilities of the model system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012