Matching Items (9)

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The effect of parenting styles on substance use and academic achievement among delinquent youth: implications for selective intervention practices

Description

Juvenile delinquency is a complex issue that effects youth, families, and society. Studies have found that parenting styles are a significant contributor to numerous behaviors that influence juvenile delinquency, specifically

Juvenile delinquency is a complex issue that effects youth, families, and society. Studies have found that parenting styles are a significant contributor to numerous behaviors that influence juvenile delinquency, specifically substance use and poor academic achievement. This literature has been used by to the juvenile justice system to develop family based interventions for delinquent youth in efforts to reduce recidivism. However, previous studies have primarily sampled from the general population, which has limited their usefulness in creating selective interventions for the delinquent population. This thesis offers Baumrind (1966) and Maccoby & Martin's (1983) theory of parenting style typologies as a framework for understanding the effects of parenting style on substance use and academic achievement among delinquent youth. Using juvenile court case files from Maricopa County collected from 2005-2010, (N = 181), logistic regression was performed to test the hypotheses that (1) delinquent youth with Authoritarian, Uninvolved, and Permissive parenting will be more likely to use substances than youth with Authoritative parenting and that (2) delinquent youth with Authoritarian, Uninvolved, and Permissive parenting will be more likely to have poor academic achievement than youth with Authoritative parenting. Using Authoritative parenting as the reference group, it was found that delinquent youth with Permissive and Uninvolved parenting had a higher likelihood of substance use than delinquent youth with Authoritative parenting, and that delinquent youth with Permissive parenting had a higher likelihood of poor academic achievement than youth with Authoritative parenting. These findings have important theoretical implications as well as practical implications for intervention strategies for delinquent youth, which are additionally discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Understanding the effect of non-responsive parenting on offspring externalizing problems in young adulthood: examining the roles of stress response and culture

Description

Longitudinal data from European-American (EA) and Mexican-American (MA) families (n = 179 mothers, fathers, and youth; 41% MA) was used to test a bio-psycho-cultural model of the effect of non-responsive

Longitudinal data from European-American (EA) and Mexican-American (MA) families (n = 179 mothers, fathers, and youth; 41% MA) was used to test a bio-psycho-cultural model of the effect of non-responsive parenting on externalizing problems in young adult offspring through the effect on the stress response system. Parenting behavior (acceptance, rejection, harsh discipline) was assessed when children were in late childhood (12-13 years), cortisol samples were collected during late adolescence (18-19 years), and externalizing problems were measured in young adulthood (21-22 years). Latent profile analyses were used to examine patterns of parenting behavior in EA and MA families. A path analysis framework was used to examine how non-responsive parenting interacted with acceptance to predict adolescent stress response and subsequent externalizing problems in EA and MA young adults. Results showed different patterns of parenting behavior in EA versus MA families, with MA families demonstrating a profile of high acceptance and high non-responsiveness at higher rates than EA families. In MA families, youth adherence to the traditional cultural value of familismo related to more positive perceptions of parenting behavior. Across ethnic groups, parent rejection only predicted higher externalizing problems in young adults when acceptance was high. The effect of parent harsh discipline on offspring stress response differed by ethnicity. In MA families, harsh discipline predicted dysregulated stress response in youth when acceptance was low. In EA families, harsh discipline did not relate to youth stress response. Overall, results increase the understanding of normative and adaptive parenting behaviors in MA families. Findings inform the development of culturally-competent parenting-focused interventions that can better prevent dysregulated stress response and externalizing behavior problems in ethnically diverse youth.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Social support from family and friends and their role as buffers against internalizing symptoms among Mexican American youth

Description

Internalizing symptoms are prevalent among adolescents, especially among Latinos, and can have negative consequences on health and development. Understanding the risk and protective factors leading to internalizing difficulties among Latino

Internalizing symptoms are prevalent among adolescents, especially among Latinos, and can have negative consequences on health and development. Understanding the risk and protective factors leading to internalizing difficulties among Latino youth is critical. The current study sought to assess the effects of family risk and peer social rejection in the seventh grade on internalizing symptoms in the tenth grade, and the potential buffering effects of social support from family and from friends, among a sample of 749 Mexican American youth. Structural equation modeling was used to examine pathways from seventh grade family risk and peer social rejection to internalizing symptoms in the tenth grade. Perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends were tested as moderators of these relations. Gender differences in these pathways were also assessed. Results showed that family risk did not predict tenth grade internalizing symptoms, but that peer social rejection predicted increased internalizing symptoms for girls. Furthermore, buffering effects were not confirmed; rather social support from both friends and family had no effect on the relation between family risk and internalizing symptoms, and high levels of social support from both sources amplified the effect of peer social rejection on internalizing symptoms. Secondary analyses suggested that at low levels of social support from both sources, peer social rejection predicted decreased internalizing symptoms for males. Limitations and implications for prevention and future research are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The effects of father involvement in adolescence on cortisol reactivity in young adulthood: the mediating role of perceived mattering

Description

Research suggests that early family relationships have critical influences on later physical and psychological health, but most studies have focused on the influence of mothers ignoring the unique impacts of

Research suggests that early family relationships have critical influences on later physical and psychological health, but most studies have focused on the influence of mothers ignoring the unique impacts of fathers. One mechanism by which families may transmit risk is by repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the short-term that leads to adult neurobiological dysregulaton, evident in hyper- or hypo-cortisol levels. Using 218 father-child dyads from the Parent and Youth Study (PAYS), the current study investigated whether father involvement in adolescence predicted youth cortisol AUCg and reactivity to a stress task in young adulthood, and whether this relation was mediated by youth perceptions of mattering to their fathers in adolescence. Results revealed that higher father-reported father involvement predicted lower cortisol AUCg in youth when mattering was included in the model, although father involvement was not a statistically significant predictor of AUCg or cortisol reactivity when mattering was not included. Additionally, children who reported higher father involvement also reported higher feelings of mattering, but this association was only statistically significant for girls and European American youth. Youth feelings of mattering did not predict their cortisol reactivity or AUCg in young adulthood. Results suggest that future research should include fathers when investigating the effects of family relationships on youth psychophysiological development.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Asian American parental involvement, adolescent depression and young adult general health: the moderating role of intergenerational gap in acculturation

Description

Asian American (AA) adolescents and young adults are at risk for poor psychological adjustment and diminished health. Parental involvement and intergenerational gap in acculturation (IGA) have been independently associated with

Asian American (AA) adolescents and young adults are at risk for poor psychological adjustment and diminished health. Parental involvement and intergenerational gap in acculturation (IGA) have been independently associated with intergenerational acculturative conflict, a common stressor in the AA population. However, few studies have tested how the influence of parental involvement on intergenerational acculturative conflict/family cohesion and subsequent psychological adjustment may vary depending on IGA; and even fewer studies have investigated how such models apply to AA general health. The goals of the present study were, therefore, to identify pathways linking these acculturative family processes to AA young adult general health in a large sample of Filipino and Southeast Asian (SEA) families. Analyses utilized data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS; Portes & Rumbaut, 2001), a national longitudinal study of children from immigrant families. Results suggested that although Filipino and SEA families may differ in the acculturative processes that contribute to intergenerational acculturative conflict and family cohesion, depressive symptoms are an important mechanism through which these family outcomes in adolescence influence young adult general health outcomes in both Filipino and SEA families. This investigation serves to inform future programs aimed at providing targeted interventions for AAs at risk for long-term psychological disorders and physical health problems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Exploring the role of different forms of support linked to adolescent romantic relationships

Description

Receiving support from intimate others is important to individual well-being across the lifespan. However, the role of support in adolescent romantic relationships has not been investigated extensively. Using

Receiving support from intimate others is important to individual well-being across the lifespan. However, the role of support in adolescent romantic relationships has not been investigated extensively. Using two studies, this dissertation utilized data from N = 111 adolescent couples collected as part of the Adolescents, Schools, Peers, and Interpersonal Relationships (ASPIRE) to investigate the implications of support for adolescents’ relationship quality, and positive behavioral adjustment. The first study expanded on existing research by investigating whether support given in response to a partner’s experience of a stressful event, and gauged from the perspective of the support recipient, was associated with the quality of adolescents’ romantic relationships. The study, further investigated whether the association between support and relationship quality changed depending on stress levels experienced due to the stressful event. Results from the dyadic process multilevel model showed that support receipt was associated with increased relationship quality on the same day and that this association was moderated by stress. Results imply that support processes engaged in by adolescents may operate in a similar manner as they do for adults. Implications for the research literature are discussed.

The second study examined the role of parental support in adolescents’ romantic relationships. Although, research indicates parents continue to play an important role in the socialization of their children during the adolescent years, very little is known about the role of parenting practices in the domain of adolescent romantic relationships. Study two used longitudinal data to investigate the influence of parental support of adolescent romantic relationships and parental trust on adolescents’ disclosure of information about romantic relationships and adolescent problem behaviors. Results of the Actor Partner Interdependence Model indicated that parental support of romantic relationships but not parental trust was associated with increases in adolescent romantic relationship disclosure at time one, and decreases in problem behaviors at time two. Furthermore, important sex differences emerged. Sex differences and implications for parents of adolescents are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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A transdiagnostic approach to understanding psychopathology in late adolescents: parent-adolescent relationship dynamics discriminate latent classes of psychological adjustment

Description

Comorbidity is a significant problem for current classification systems of psychopathology (i.e., DSM-V). One issue is that the underlying mechanisms shared among comorbid disorders are poorly understood, especially potential psychosocial

Comorbidity is a significant problem for current classification systems of psychopathology (i.e., DSM-V). One issue is that the underlying mechanisms shared among comorbid disorders are poorly understood, especially potential psychosocial mechanisms such as family dynamics. The current study used latent class analysis to empirically classify patterns of psychopathology within a large community sample of late adolescents (age 18-19) based on their lifetime psychological adjustment measured using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Videotaped family interactions of adolescents (age 16-17) and their parents were micro and macro coded and the resulting family dynamics were compared across the three empirically defined groups of psychological adjustment which emerged from the latent class analysis: 1) an early onset, persistent antisocial behavior class; 2) an emotionally distressed and substance using class; and 3) a typically developing class. It was found that some directly observed family dynamics, including parental monitoring, dyadic positive engagement and coercive engagement discriminated among empirically derived classes. It was also found that particular tasks better discriminated among classes with regard to specific family dynamics (e.g., family activity task best discriminated among classes on dyadic positive engagement). Overall, findings suggest that novel methodologies like latent class analysis can be useful in attempting to map underlying transdiagnostic mechanisms onto the current diagnostic framework. The findings also highlight the importance of taking many variables into consideration when attempting to understand how family dynamics are associated with psychological adjustment.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationship quality after divorce: relations with young adult romantic attachment

Description

Although social learning and attachment theories suggest that parent-adolescent relationships influence adult romantic relationships, research on this topic is limited. Most research examining relations between mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationship quality

Although social learning and attachment theories suggest that parent-adolescent relationships influence adult romantic relationships, research on this topic is limited. Most research examining relations between mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationship quality and young adult romantic relationship quality has found significant effects of mother-adolescent relationship quality. Findings on fathers have been less consistent. These relations have not been examined among youth who experienced parental divorce, which often negatively impacts parent-child relationships and romantic outcomes. Further, no prior studies examined interactive effects of mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationship quality on romantic attachment. The current study used longitudinal data from the control group of a randomized controlled trial of a preventative intervention for divorced families to examine unique and interactive effects of mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationship quality on young adult romantic attachment. The 72 participants completed measures of mother-adolescent relationship quality and father-adolescent relationship quality during adolescence (ages 15-19), and completed a measure of romantic attachment (anxiety and avoidance) during young adulthood (ages 24-28). Findings revealed significant interactive effects of mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationship quality on young adult romantic anxiety. The pattern of results suggests that having a high quality relationship with one's father can protect children from negative effects of having a low quality relationship with one's mother on romantic anxiety. These results suggest the importance of examining effects of one parent-adolescent relationship on YA romantic attachment in the context of the other parent-adolescent relationship. Exploratory analyses of gender revealed that father-adolescent relationship quality significantly interacted with gender to predict romantic avoidance; this relation was stronger for males. These results suggest that nonresidential fathers play an important role in adolescents' working models of relationships and their subsequent romantic attachment.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Alcohol-specific parenting in a high-risk sample: measurement, determinants, and association with nondrinking adolescents' attitudes about alcohol use

Description

Research shows that general parenting practices (e.g., support and discipline), influence adolescent substance use. However, socialization theory suggests that parental socialization occurs not only through general parenting practices, but also

Research shows that general parenting practices (e.g., support and discipline), influence adolescent substance use. However, socialization theory suggests that parental socialization occurs not only through general parenting practices, but also through parents' attempts to influence specific behaviors and values. A growing literature supports links between substance-specific parenting and adolescent substance use. For adolescent alcohol use, there are considerable limitations and gaps within this literature. To address these limitations, the present study examined the factor structure of alcohol-specific parenting, investigated the determinants of alcohol-specific parenting, and explored its association with nondrinking adolescents' attitudes about alcohol use. Using a high-risk sample of nondrinking adolescents and their parents, the current study found three dimensions of alcohol-specific parenting using both adolescent and parent reports, but also found evidence of non-invariance across reporters. Results also revealed complex roles of parental alcohol use disorder (AUD; including recovered and current AUD), family history of AUD, and current drinking as determinants of the three dimensions of anti-alcohol parenting behaviors. Moreover, the current study showed that the effects of these determinants varied by the reporter of the parenting behavior. Finally, the current study found the dimensions of alcohol-specific parenting to be unique and significant predictors of nondrinking adolescents' attitudes about alcohol, over and above general parenting practices, parent AUD, and parent current drinking. Given its demonstrated distinctness from general parenting practices, its link with adolescent alcohol attitudes, and its potential malleability, alcohol-specific parenting may be an important complement to interventions targeting parents of adolescents.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012