Matching Items (9)

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Mexican immigrants families' traditional and non-traditional language and literacy practices at home that prepare children for school in the United States

Description

This qualitative study investigates the at-home educational efforts of six immigrant families as they prepare their children for school in the United States. The participants’ at-home educational activities were provided

This qualitative study investigates the at-home educational efforts of six immigrant families as they prepare their children for school in the United States. The participants’ at-home educational activities were provided by the Mexican immigrant families using photographs of activities that they judged as skills which developed the child’s ability to engage with other children, teachers, and the curriculum on their first day at school. Photovoice methodology was used in order to provide the Mexican immigrants’ voice.

The families were recruited from a large urban city in the Southwest with a large immigrant population. They were recruited from medical centers, social support centers, churches with immigrant communities, and schools that had Mexican immigrant children in attendance. The schools and churches provided the greatest source of participants. The educational level of the parents varied from over fifteen years to three years of schooling in Mexico. The children in the study were citizens of the United States, were from two to four years of age, had not yet attended school in the U.S., but had siblings attending public schools in the United States. The families opened their life to the researcher and provided an insight through their photographs that could not have been gained if only interviews and/or questionnaires were used.

The twenty five photographs selected to identify the six educational themes that were highlighted throughout the study are demonstrative of what the families in the study were doing to prepare their children for their first day of school. Mexican immigrant parents have high expectations for their children and are willing to sacrifice for the children’s education.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Measuring and testing the processes underlying young Mexican-origin childrens ethnic-racial identification

Description

The overarching goal of this dissertation was to contribute to the field’s understanding of young children’s development of ethnic-racial identification. In particular, Study 1 presented the adaptation of three measures

The overarching goal of this dissertation was to contribute to the field’s understanding of young children’s development of ethnic-racial identification. In particular, Study 1 presented the adaptation of three measures that are developmentally appropriate for assessing young children’s ethnic-racial attitudes, ethnic-racial centrality, and ethnic-racial knowledge, and tested the psychometric properties of each measure. Findings from Study 1 provided limited initial support for the construct validity and reliability of the measures; importantly, there were many differences in the descriptives and measurement properties based on the language in which children completed the measures. In addition to measurement of ethnic-racial identification, Study 2 used the measures developed in Study 1 and tested whether Mexican-origin mothers’ adaptive cultural characteristics (i.e., ERI affirmation, ethnic-racial centrality, and involvement in Mexican culture) when children were 3 years of age predicted greater cultural socialization efforts with children at 4 years of age and, in turn, children’s ethnic-racial identification (i.e., children’s ethnic-racial attitudes, ethnic-racial centrality, ethnic-racial knowledge, and identification as Mexican) at 5 years of age. Furthermore, children’s characteristics (i.e., gender and skin tone) were tested as moderators of these processes. Findings supported expected processes from mothers’ adaptive cultural characteristics to children’s ethnic-racial identification via mothers’ cultural socialization across boys and girls, however, relations varied by children’s skin tone. Findings highlight the important role of children’s individual characteristics in cultural socialization and young children’s developing ethnic-racial identification over time. Overall, given the paucity of studies that have examined ethnic-racial identification among young children, the results from Study 1 and Study 2 have the potential to stimulate growth of knowledge in this area.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Neighborhood influences on behavior problems among low-income, Mexican American children

Description

Latino children are more than twice as likely to live in poverty than their non-Latino, White peers (Kids Count Data Center, 2017), yet limited work has aimed to understand neighborhood

Latino children are more than twice as likely to live in poverty than their non-Latino, White peers (Kids Count Data Center, 2017), yet limited work has aimed to understand neighborhood influences on pathways of mental health among Latino children. Substantial work documents the deleterious effects of living in a disadvantaged neighborhood on mental health outcomes throughout the lifespan (Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2000). Parental and familial variables may explain neighborhood influences on children’s mental health during the first few years of life (May, Azar, & Matthews, 2018). The current study evaluated the influence of three neighborhood indicators (concentrated disadvantage, residential instability, and the percentage of residents identifying as Hispanic/Latino) on maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and child behavior problems at 3 and 4.5 years via mediation and moderated mediation models among a sample of 322 low-income, Mexican American mother-child dyads. Contrary to hypotheses and existing literature, concentrated disadvantage and residential instability were not predictive of maternal or child mental health outcomes. The percentage of residents identifying as Hispanic/Latino emerged as a protective neighborhood factor for both mothers and children. The neighborhood ethnocultural context may be especially relevant to understanding pathways of mental health specific to Mexican American families. More research is needed to understand specific parental and familial mechanisms underlying this protective effect.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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In search of culturally grounded profiles of parental over-control: implications for anxiety in Hispanic/Latino children

Description

Parental over-control (excessively restrictive and regulatory parenting behaviors) has been consistently identified as a robust risk factor in the development and maintenance of child anxiety problems. However, current understanding of

Parental over-control (excessively restrictive and regulatory parenting behaviors) has been consistently identified as a robust risk factor in the development and maintenance of child anxiety problems. However, current understanding of the parental over-control to child anxiety relation is limited by a lack of specificity. The broad ‘parental over-control’ construct represents a heterogeneous category of related but distinct parenting behaviors each of which may exert a unique effect on child anxious emotion. Still, research to date has generally failed to consider this possibility. Moreover, culturally cognizant theory and emerging empirical evidence suggest cross-ethnic (Caucasian vs. Hispanic/Latino) differences in the utilization of various parenting strategies as well as the effects of parenting behaviors on child outcomes. But, only a handful of studies have considered the potential differences in the functioning of parental over-control behaviors within a Hispanic/Latino cultural framework. Using a sample of 98 pre-adolescent children at-risk for anxiety problems, the present study sought to further explicate the association between parental over-control and child anxiety symptoms in the context of ethnic and cultural diversity. Results suggest that parents’ use of overprotection and (lack of) autonomy granting might be particularly relevant to child anxiety, compared to parental intrusiveness and behavioral control. Findings also indicate that some youth may be more vulnerable to parental over-control and suggest that cultural values may play a role in the relation between over-controlling parenting and child anxiety symptoms. Knowledge about cross-cultural variations in the relation among parental over-control behaviors and the development of anxiety symptoms is important because it can improve the cultural robustness of child anxiety theory and has potential to inform culturally sensitive child anxiety prevention and intervention efforts.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The emotional impact of anti-immigration policies on Latino youth and Latino immigrant parents' efforts to protect their youth

Description

The Arizona legislature has enacted a number of anti-immigrant policies which negatively impact Latino immigrant families. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of Latino parents on

The Arizona legislature has enacted a number of anti-immigrant policies which negatively impact Latino immigrant families. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of Latino parents on how anti-immigration policies emotionally impact their children and how they believe they can protect their children from the harmful effects of such policies. Secondary data analysis was conducted based on in-depth semi structured interviews completed with a sample of 54 Latino immigrant parents residing in the state of Arizona. Grounded theory methods informed the analysis process. A constant comparative approach was used to complete initial and focused coding. Findings indicate that Latino immigrant parents observed a range of behavioral changes in their children following the passage of anti-immigrant legislature. Parents reported that the emotional impact they observed stemmed from children's social interactions in their home, school, and community environments as well as through their exposure to the media. Latino youth experienced emotional impact is summarized in the following themes, concern and sense of responsibility; fear and hypervigilance; sadness and crying; and depression. Findings further demonstrated that parents protected Latino youth from anti-immigration policies directly and indirect ways by focusing on children's safety and well-being (let children live their childhood, be prepared, send messages), building parents capacity (pursue education, obtain papers), and engaging in change efforts at the community level (be proactive). Parents indicated that by engaging in these efforts they could protect their children, and counter the negative effects of anti-immigrant policies. Implications for social work practice to better advocate and serve Latino youth at the individual, family, and community level are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Relations between family/friendship satisfaction and anxiety in a sample of children with phobic and anxiety disorders: exploring variability across age and ethnicity

Description

Although anxiety may be developmentally appropriate, it can become problematic in some youth. From an ecological perspective, social systems, like family and friendships, are theorized to influence developmental trajectories toward

Although anxiety may be developmentally appropriate, it can become problematic in some youth. From an ecological perspective, social systems, like family and friendships, are theorized to influence developmental trajectories toward (mal)adjustment, but empirical evidence is scant with regard to the relative impact of subjective satisfaction with family and friendship on anxiety problem development. This thesis study used a subsample of approximately 50% Hispanic/Latino clinic-referred youth (n = 71, ages 6-16 years). Overall, results suggest that the effect of friendship satisfaction on anxiety varied as a function of age but not ethnicity, such that there was a significant negative relationship between child-reported friendship satisfaction and anxiety levels for older children (approx. 9 years and older) but not for younger children. The effect of family satisfaction on anxiety also varied as a function of age, such that older children showed a positive relation between child reported family satisfaction and parent reported anxiety. Furthermore, a positive relation between family satisfaction and anxiety was found only for the H/L children. Post hoc analyses regarding cultural underpinnings of this finding and implications for future research are discussed, as are the results regarding differences between parent and child reports of anxiety.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Mexican-origin circumstantial bilingual: the child, the parent, the advocate

Description

In order to adapt to a new culture and new language, children of immigrant families are faced daily with the responsibility of being the intermediaries between the family and the

In order to adapt to a new culture and new language, children of immigrant families are faced daily with the responsibility of being the intermediaries between the family and the host culture through their language proficiency (Weisskirch & Alva, 2002). This thesis looks into the experiences of English-Spanish bilingual children as they bridge the gap between the family and the non-Spanish speaking community through their interpreting/translating skills. With an emphasis on children of Mexican-origin, the goal is to further understand and illuminate how these children manage this communication in an adult society, their feelings and thoughts about their experiences, and the child's perceptions about the influence that this experience may or may not have on their future. A sample of seventeen children agreed to participate in a semi-structured face-to-face interview to share their experiences. The data from these interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach (Braun & Clarke, 2006). A priori themes of circumstantial bilingual and adaptive parentification were the initial focus of the research while being open to emerging themes. The children's accounts of their experiences indicated primarily that the Mexican-origin values of familism and respeto (respect) were a significant influence on them when they interpreted/translated for their family. With these traditional cultural values and norms as the groundwork, the sub-themes of normalcy and stress emerged as supportive elements of the circumstantial bilingual experience. Furthermore, the theme of adaptive parentification and the sub-themes of choice, expectation/responsibility to assist, and equality to parents offered further insight on how adaptive parentification can result as the roles of these children change. There was an emergent theme, identity negotiation, which increases our understanding of what the circumstantial bilingual child encounters as the attempt is made to negotiate his identity as an individual who has to mediate language between two opposing cultures. Due to the language brokering responsibility that are bestowed upon these children, it is concluded that communicative support by the parents is a necessary component of the parent-child relationship in order to nurture and develop these children as they negotiate and create their identity to become the successful leaders of tomorrow.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Assessing a culturally informed transactional model of Latino children's temperament development

Description

The goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding of Mexican-American three- to five-year-old children’s effortful control (EC) and negative emotionality (NE) development by examining whether Mexican-American adolescent

The goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding of Mexican-American three- to five-year-old children’s effortful control (EC) and negative emotionality (NE) development by examining whether Mexican-American adolescent mothers’ parenting transacts with their three- to five-year-old children’s EC and NE and by exploring whether mothers’ familism acts as a protective factor. I hypothesized that mothers’ harshness and warmth would transact with EC and NE over time. I further hypothesized that mothers’ familism values would (a) positively predict mothers’ warmth and negatively predict mothers’ harshness, and (b) act as a buffer between low EC and high NE, and high harshness and low warmth. These hypotheses were tested within a sample of Mexican-American adolescent mother-child dyads (N = 204) and assessed longitudinally when children were 36, 48, and 60 months. Mothers were predominantly first generation (i.e., mothers’ parents were born in Mexico; 67%) and spoke English (65%). When children were 36 months, average family income (i.e., wages, public assistance, food stamps) was $24,715 (SD = $19,545) and mothers had started community college (13%) or completed high school/GED (30%), 11th grade (19%), 10th grade (8%), or less than 9th grade (14%). In this sample, transactions between harshness or warmth and EC or NE were not found, but a bidirectional association between NE and harshness was found. Familism marginally negatively predicted harshness, but not warmth. Familism moderated the relation between NE and harshness such that there was only a negative relation between NE and harshness when familism was high. However, familism did not moderate the relations between NE and warmth, or EC and harshness or warmth. The results of this study are discussed with respect to (a) current methodological limitations in the field, such as the need to test or develop parent-report measures of Mexican-American children’s temperament and value-driven socialization goals, (b) future avenues for research, such as person-centered studies of clusters of mothers’ values and how those relate to clusters of parenting behaviors, and (c) implications for interventions addressing parenting behavior of adolescent mothers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Learning of anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms in youth

Description

Anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety-related bodily sensations) has been earmarked as a significant risk factor in the development and maintenance of pathological anxiety in adults and children. Given

Anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety-related bodily sensations) has been earmarked as a significant risk factor in the development and maintenance of pathological anxiety in adults and children. Given the potential implications of heightened AS, recent research has focused on investigating the etiology and developmental course of elevated AS; however, most of this work has been conducted with adults and is retrospective in nature. Data from college students show that early anxiety-related learning experiences may be a primary source of heightened AS levels, but it remains unclear whether AS in children is linked to their learning experiences (i.e., parental reinforcement, modeling, punishment, and/or transmission of information about anxiety-related behaviors). Based on AS theory and its iterations, an emerging theoretical model was developed to aid further exploration of the putative causes and consequences of heightened AS levels. Using a sample of 70 clinic-referred youth (ages 6 to 16 years old; 51.4% Hispanic/Latino), the present study sought to further explicate the role of learning in the development of AS and anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that childhood learning experiences may be an important precursor to heightened AS levels and, subsequently, increased experiences of anxiety symptoms. Findings also indicate that some youth may be more vulnerable to anxiety-related learning experiences and suggest that culture may play a role in the relations among learning, AS, and anxiety symptoms.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012