Matching Items (4)

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Measuring and testing the processes underlying young Mexican-origin childrens ethnic-racial identification

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The overarching goal of this dissertation was to contribute to the field’s understanding of young children’s development of ethnic-racial identification. In particular, Study 1 presented the adaptation of three measures

The overarching goal of this dissertation was to contribute to the field’s understanding of young children’s development of ethnic-racial identification. In particular, Study 1 presented the adaptation of three measures that are developmentally appropriate for assessing young children’s ethnic-racial attitudes, ethnic-racial centrality, and ethnic-racial knowledge, and tested the psychometric properties of each measure. Findings from Study 1 provided limited initial support for the construct validity and reliability of the measures; importantly, there were many differences in the descriptives and measurement properties based on the language in which children completed the measures. In addition to measurement of ethnic-racial identification, Study 2 used the measures developed in Study 1 and tested whether Mexican-origin mothers’ adaptive cultural characteristics (i.e., ERI affirmation, ethnic-racial centrality, and involvement in Mexican culture) when children were 3 years of age predicted greater cultural socialization efforts with children at 4 years of age and, in turn, children’s ethnic-racial identification (i.e., children’s ethnic-racial attitudes, ethnic-racial centrality, ethnic-racial knowledge, and identification as Mexican) at 5 years of age. Furthermore, children’s characteristics (i.e., gender and skin tone) were tested as moderators of these processes. Findings supported expected processes from mothers’ adaptive cultural characteristics to children’s ethnic-racial identification via mothers’ cultural socialization across boys and girls, however, relations varied by children’s skin tone. Findings highlight the important role of children’s individual characteristics in cultural socialization and young children’s developing ethnic-racial identification over time. Overall, given the paucity of studies that have examined ethnic-racial identification among young children, the results from Study 1 and Study 2 have the potential to stimulate growth of knowledge in this area.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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In search of culturally grounded profiles of parental over-control: implications for anxiety in Hispanic/Latino children

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Parental over-control (excessively restrictive and regulatory parenting behaviors) has been consistently identified as a robust risk factor in the development and maintenance of child anxiety problems. However, current understanding of

Parental over-control (excessively restrictive and regulatory parenting behaviors) has been consistently identified as a robust risk factor in the development and maintenance of child anxiety problems. However, current understanding of the parental over-control to child anxiety relation is limited by a lack of specificity. The broad ‘parental over-control’ construct represents a heterogeneous category of related but distinct parenting behaviors each of which may exert a unique effect on child anxious emotion. Still, research to date has generally failed to consider this possibility. Moreover, culturally cognizant theory and emerging empirical evidence suggest cross-ethnic (Caucasian vs. Hispanic/Latino) differences in the utilization of various parenting strategies as well as the effects of parenting behaviors on child outcomes. But, only a handful of studies have considered the potential differences in the functioning of parental over-control behaviors within a Hispanic/Latino cultural framework. Using a sample of 98 pre-adolescent children at-risk for anxiety problems, the present study sought to further explicate the association between parental over-control and child anxiety symptoms in the context of ethnic and cultural diversity. Results suggest that parents’ use of overprotection and (lack of) autonomy granting might be particularly relevant to child anxiety, compared to parental intrusiveness and behavioral control. Findings also indicate that some youth may be more vulnerable to parental over-control and suggest that cultural values may play a role in the relation between over-controlling parenting and child anxiety symptoms. Knowledge about cross-cultural variations in the relation among parental over-control behaviors and the development of anxiety symptoms is important because it can improve the cultural robustness of child anxiety theory and has potential to inform culturally sensitive child anxiety prevention and intervention efforts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Assessing a culturally informed transactional model of Latino children's temperament development

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The goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding of Mexican-American three- to five-year-old children’s effortful control (EC) and negative emotionality (NE) development by examining whether Mexican-American adolescent

The goal of this study is to contribute to the understanding of Mexican-American three- to five-year-old children’s effortful control (EC) and negative emotionality (NE) development by examining whether Mexican-American adolescent mothers’ parenting transacts with their three- to five-year-old children’s EC and NE and by exploring whether mothers’ familism acts as a protective factor. I hypothesized that mothers’ harshness and warmth would transact with EC and NE over time. I further hypothesized that mothers’ familism values would (a) positively predict mothers’ warmth and negatively predict mothers’ harshness, and (b) act as a buffer between low EC and high NE, and high harshness and low warmth. These hypotheses were tested within a sample of Mexican-American adolescent mother-child dyads (N = 204) and assessed longitudinally when children were 36, 48, and 60 months. Mothers were predominantly first generation (i.e., mothers’ parents were born in Mexico; 67%) and spoke English (65%). When children were 36 months, average family income (i.e., wages, public assistance, food stamps) was $24,715 (SD = $19,545) and mothers had started community college (13%) or completed high school/GED (30%), 11th grade (19%), 10th grade (8%), or less than 9th grade (14%). In this sample, transactions between harshness or warmth and EC or NE were not found, but a bidirectional association between NE and harshness was found. Familism marginally negatively predicted harshness, but not warmth. Familism moderated the relation between NE and harshness such that there was only a negative relation between NE and harshness when familism was high. However, familism did not moderate the relations between NE and warmth, or EC and harshness or warmth. The results of this study are discussed with respect to (a) current methodological limitations in the field, such as the need to test or develop parent-report measures of Mexican-American children’s temperament and value-driven socialization goals, (b) future avenues for research, such as person-centered studies of clusters of mothers’ values and how those relate to clusters of parenting behaviors, and (c) implications for interventions addressing parenting behavior of adolescent mothers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Learning of anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms in youth

Description

Anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety-related bodily sensations) has been earmarked as a significant risk factor in the development and maintenance of pathological anxiety in adults and children. Given

Anxiety sensitivity (AS; the fear of anxiety-related bodily sensations) has been earmarked as a significant risk factor in the development and maintenance of pathological anxiety in adults and children. Given the potential implications of heightened AS, recent research has focused on investigating the etiology and developmental course of elevated AS; however, most of this work has been conducted with adults and is retrospective in nature. Data from college students show that early anxiety-related learning experiences may be a primary source of heightened AS levels, but it remains unclear whether AS in children is linked to their learning experiences (i.e., parental reinforcement, modeling, punishment, and/or transmission of information about anxiety-related behaviors). Based on AS theory and its iterations, an emerging theoretical model was developed to aid further exploration of the putative causes and consequences of heightened AS levels. Using a sample of 70 clinic-referred youth (ages 6 to 16 years old; 51.4% Hispanic/Latino), the present study sought to further explicate the role of learning in the development of AS and anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that childhood learning experiences may be an important precursor to heightened AS levels and, subsequently, increased experiences of anxiety symptoms. Findings also indicate that some youth may be more vulnerable to anxiety-related learning experiences and suggest that culture may play a role in the relations among learning, AS, and anxiety symptoms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012