Matching Items (8)

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Low-frequency accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducer in galvanic cell

Description

In this thesis, an approach to develop low-frequency accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) in an electrochemical cell is presented. Molecular electronic transducers are a class of inertial sensors

In this thesis, an approach to develop low-frequency accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) in an electrochemical cell is presented. Molecular electronic transducers are a class of inertial sensors which are based on an electrochemical mechanism. Motion sensors based on MET technology consist of an electrochemical cell that can be used to detect the movement of liquid electrolyte between electrodes by converting it to an output current. Seismometers based on MET technology are attractive for planetary applications due to their high sensitivity, low noise, small size and independence on the direction of sensitivity axis. In addition, the fact that MET based sensors have a liquid inertial mass with no moving parts makes them rugged and shock tolerant (basic survivability has been demonstrated to >20 kG).

A Zn-Cu electrochemical cell (Galvanic cell) was applied in the low-frequency accelerometer. Experimental results show that external vibrations (range from 18 to 70 Hz) were successfully detected by this accelerometer as reactions Zn→〖Zn〗^(2+)+2e^- occurs around the anode and 〖Cu〗^(2+)+2e^-→Cu around the cathode. Accordingly, the sensitivity of this MET device design is to achieve 10.4 V/G at 18 Hz. And the sources of noise have been analyzed.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Design and development of electrochemical cell for converting carbon dioxide to useful fuel

Description

The majority of the natural issues the world is confronting today is because of our dependence on fossil fuels and the increase in CO2 emissions. The alternative solution for this

The majority of the natural issues the world is confronting today is because of our dependence on fossil fuels and the increase in CO2 emissions. The alternative solution for this problem is the use of renewable energy for the energy production, but these are uncertain energy sources. So, the combination of reducing carbon dioxide with the use of renewable energy sources is the finest way to mitigate this problem. Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (ERC) is a reasonable approach as it eliminates as well as utilizes the carbon dioxide as a source for generating valuable products.

In this study, development of electrochemical reactor, characterization of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and analysis of electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (ERC) is discussed. Electrodes using various catalyst materials in solid polymer based electrolyte (SPE) along with gas diffusion layer (GDL) are developed. The prepared membrane electrodes are characterized under ex-situ conditions using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The membranes are later placed in the electrochemical reactor for the in-situ characterization to assess the performance of the membrane electrode assembly.

The electrodes are processed by airbrushing the metal particles on the nafion membrane and then are electrochemically characterized by linear sweep voltammetry. The anode was kept constant with platinum whereas the cathode was examined with compositions of different metal catalysts. The products formed subsequently are analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and Residual gas analysis (RGA). Hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are detected using GC while the hydrocarbons are detected by performing quantitative analysis using RGA. The preliminary experiments gave very encouraging results. However, more work needs to be done to achieve new heights.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Magnesium battery electrolytes in ionic liquids

Description

A lack of adequate energy storage technologies is arguably the greatest hindrance to a modern sustainable energy infrastructure. Chemical energy storage, in the form of batteries, is an obvious solution

A lack of adequate energy storage technologies is arguably the greatest hindrance to a modern sustainable energy infrastructure. Chemical energy storage, in the form of batteries, is an obvious solution to the problem. Unfortunately, today’s state of the art battery technologies fail to meet the desired metrics for full scale electric grid and/or electric vehicle role out. Considerable effort from scientists and engineers has gone into the pursuit of battery chemistries theoretically capable of far outperforming leading technologies like Li-ion cells. For instance, an anode of the relatively abundant and cheap metal, magnesium, would boost the specific energy by over 4.6 times that of the current Li-ion anode (LiC6).

The work presented here explores the compatibility of magnesium electrolytes in TFSI–-based ionic liquids with a Mg anode (TFSI = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide). Correlations are made between the Mg2+ speciation conditions in bulk solutions (as determined via Raman spectroscopy) and the corresponding electrochemical behavior of the electrolytes. It was found that by creating specific chelating conditions, with an appropriate Mg salt, the desired electrochemical behavior could be obtained, i.e. reversible electrodeposition and dissolution. Removal of TFSI– contact ion pairs from the Mg2+ solvation shell was found to be essential for reversible electrodeposition. Ionic liquids with polyethylene glycol chains pendent from a parent pyrrolidinium cation were synthesized and used to create the necessary complexes with Mg2+, from Mg(BH4)2, so that reversible electrodeposition from a purely ionic liquid medium was achieved.

The following document discusses findings from several electrochemical experiments on magnesium electrolytes in ionic liquids. Explanations for the failure of many of these systems to produce reversible Mg electrodeposition are provided. The key characteristics of ionic liquid systems that are capable of achieving reversible Mg electrodeposition are also given.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Synthesis and characterization of an ionomer for zinc-air battery cathodes

Description

The work presented in this thesis covers the synthesis and characterization of an ionomer that is applicable to zinc-air batteries. Polysulfone polymer is first chloromethylated and then quaternized to create

The work presented in this thesis covers the synthesis and characterization of an ionomer that is applicable to zinc-air batteries. Polysulfone polymer is first chloromethylated and then quaternized to create an ion-conducting polymer. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra indicates that the degree of chloromethylation was 114%. The chemical and physical properties that were investigated include: the ionic conductivity, ion exchange capacity, water retention capacity, diameter and thickness swelling ratios, porosity, glass transition temperature, ionic conductivity enhanced by free salt addition, and the concentration and diffusivity of oxygen within the ionomer. It was found that the fully hydrated hydroxide form of the ionomer had a room temperature ionic conductivity of 39.92mS/cm while the chloride form had a room temperature ionic conductivity of 11.80mS/cm. The ion exchange capacity of the ionomer was found to be 1.022mmol/g. The water retention capacity (WRC) of the hydroxide form was found to be 172.6% while the chloride form had a WRC of 67.9%. The hydroxide form of the ionomer had a diameter swelling ratio of 34% and a thickness swelling ratio of 55%. The chloride form had a diameter swelling ratio of 32% and a thickness swelling ratio of 28%. The largest pore size in the ionomer was found to be 32.6nm in diameter. The glass transition temperature of the ionomer is speculated to be 344°C. A definite measurement could not be made. The room temperature ionic conductivity at 50% relative humidity was improved to 12.90mS/cm with the addition of 80% free salt. The concentration and diffusivity of oxygen in the ionomer was found to be 1.3 ±0.2mMol and (0.49 ±0.15)x10-5 cm2/s respectively. The ionomer synthesized in this research had material properties and performance that is comparable to other ionomers reported in the literature. This is an indication that this ionomer is suitable for further study and integration into a zinc-air battery. This thesis is concluded with suggestions for future research that is focused on improving the performance of the ionomer as well as improving the methodology.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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A techno-commercial assessment of residential and bulk battery energy storage

Description

Battery energy storage has shown a lot of potential in the recent past to be effective in various grid services due to its near instantaneous ramp rates and modularity. This

Battery energy storage has shown a lot of potential in the recent past to be effective in various grid services due to its near instantaneous ramp rates and modularity. This thesis aims to determine the commercial viability of customer premises and substation sited battery energy storage systems. Five different types of services have been analyzed considering current market pricing of Lithium-ion batteries and power conditioning equipment. Energy Storage Valuation Tool 3.0 (Beta) has been used to exclusively determine the value of energy storage in the services analyzed. The results indicate that on the residential level, Lithium-ion battery energy storage may not be a cost beneficial option for retail tariff management or demand charge management as only 20-30% of the initial investment is recovered at the end of 15 year plant life. SRP's two retail Time-of-Use price plans E-21 and E-26 were analyzed in respect of their ability to increase returns from storage compared to those with flat pricing. It was observed that without a coupled PV component, E-21 was more suitable for customer premises energy storage, however, its revenue stream reduces with addition to PV. On the grid scale, however, with carefully chosen service hierarchy such as distribution investment deferral, spinning or balancing reserve support, the initial investment can be recovered to an extent of about 50-70%. The study done here is specific to Salt River Project inputs and data. Results for all the services analyzed are highly location specific and are only indicative of the overall viability and returns from them.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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An investment planning model for a battery energy storage system: considering battery degradation effects

Description

As global energy demand has dramatically increased and traditional fossil fuels will be depleted in the foreseeable future, clean and unlimited renewable energies are recognized as the future global energy

As global energy demand has dramatically increased and traditional fossil fuels will be depleted in the foreseeable future, clean and unlimited renewable energies are recognized as the future global energy challenge solution. Today, the power grid in U.S. is building more and more renewable energies like wind and solar, while the electric power system faces new challenges from rapid growing percentage of wind and solar. Unlike combustion generators, intermittency and uncertainty are the inherent features of wind and solar. These features bring a big challenge to the stability of modern electric power grid, especially for a small scale power grid with wind and solar. In order to deal with the intermittency and uncertainty of wind and solar, energy storage systems are considered as one solution to mitigate the fluctuation of wind and solar by smoothing their power outputs. For many different types of energy storage systems, this thesis studied the operation of battery energy storage systems (BESS) in power systems and analyzed the benefits of the BESS. Unlike many researchers assuming fixed utilization patterns for BESS and calculating the benefits, this thesis found the BESS utilization patterns and benefits through an investment planning model. Furthermore, a cost is given for utilizing BESS and to find the best way of operating BESS rather than set an upper bound and a lower bound for BESS energy levels. Two planning models are proposed in this thesis and preliminary conclusions are derived from simulation results. This work is organized as below: chapter 1 briefly introduces the background of this research; chapter 2 gives an overview of previous related work in this area; the main work of this thesis is put in chapter 3 and chapter 4 contains the generic BESS model and the investment planning model; the following chapter 5 includes the simulation and results analysis of this research and chapter 6 provides the conclusions from chapter 5.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Battery performance and electrode corrosion

Description

Battery performance has been studied at different temperature, C rate. Different types of batteries have been used. Capacity and impedance are two factors, which are focused in the thesis. To

Battery performance has been studied at different temperature, C rate. Different types of batteries have been used. Capacity and impedance are two factors, which are focused in the thesis. To evaluate battery performance and battery conditions, the SOC (state of charge) determination methods have been studied in the thesis. There are two types of batteries divided in three groups: group I. Ni-Cd battery (2V, 8Ah); group II. Lead-acid battery (2V, 8Ah); and group III. Lead-acid battery (2V, 25Ah). The impedance testing is using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. AC impedance method has been used to test different state of charge (100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, 20%). For the corrosion part, the corrosion rate of metal material in the heat transfer fluids has been tested at different temperature. Hastelloys C-276 in eutectic molten salts a mixture of NaCl, KCl and ZnCl2 using potentiodynamic method (swap from ± 30 mV in 0.2 mV.s-1). The lowest corrosion rate of Hastelloy C-276 is 5.51 µm per year at 250 °C. Particularly, the corrosion rate of Hastelloy C-276 jumps up to 53.33 µm per year at 400 °C.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Digitally controlled average current mode buck converter

Description

During the past decade, different kinds of fancy functions are developed in portable electronic devices. This trend triggers the research of how to enhance battery lifetime to meet the requirement

During the past decade, different kinds of fancy functions are developed in portable electronic devices. This trend triggers the research of how to enhance battery lifetime to meet the requirement of fast growing demand of power in portable devices. DC-DC converter is the connection configuration between the battery and the functional circuitry. A good design of DC-DC converter will maximize the power efficiency and stabilize the power supply of following stages. As the representative of the DC-DC converter, Buck converter, which is a step down DC-DC converter that the output voltage level is smaller than the input voltage level, is the best-fit sample to start with. Digital control for DC-DC converters reduces noise sensitivity and enhances process, voltage and temperature (PVT) tolerance compared with analog control method. Also it will reduce the chip area and cost correspondingly. In battery-friendly perspective, current mode control has its advantage in over-current protection and parallel current sharing, which can form different structures to extend battery lifetime. In the thesis, the method to implement digitally average current mode control is introduced; including the FPGA based digital controller design flow. Based on the behavioral model of the close loop Buck converter with digital current control, the first FPGA based average current mode controller is burned into board and tested. With the analysis, the design metric of average current mode control is provided in the study. This will be the guideline of the parallel structure of future research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011