Matching Items (4)

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An extended finite element method for modelling dislocation interactions with inclusions

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A method for modelling the interactions of dislocations with inclusions has been developed to analyse toughening mechanisms in alloys. This method is different from the superposition method in that infinite

A method for modelling the interactions of dislocations with inclusions has been developed to analyse toughening mechanisms in alloys. This method is different from the superposition method in that infinite domain solutions and image stress fields are not superimposed. The method is based on the extended finite element method (XFEM) in which the dislocations are modelled according to the Volterra dislocation model. Interior discontinuities are introduced across dislocation glide planes using enrichment functions and the resulting boundary value problem is solved through the standard finite element variational approach. The level set method is used to describe the geometry of the dislocation glide planes without any explicit treatment of the interface geometry which provides a convenient and an appealing means for describing the dislocation. A method for estimating the Peach-Koehler force by the domain form of J-integral is considered. The convergence and accuracy of the method are studied for an edge dislocation interacting with a free surface where analytical solutions are available. The force converges to the exact solution at an optimal rate for linear finite elements. The applicability of the method to dislocation interactions with inclusions is illustrated with a system of Aluminium matrix containing Aluminium-copper precipitates. The effect of size, shape and orientation of the inclusions on an edge dislocation for a difference in stiffness and coefficient of thermal expansion of the inclusions and matrix is considered. The force on the dislocation due to a hard inclusion increased by 8% in approaching the sharp corners of a square inclusion than a circular inclusion of equal area. The dislocation experienced 24% more force in moving towards the edges of a square shaped inclusion than towards its centre. When the areas of the inclusions were halved, 30% less force was exerted on the dislocation. This method was used to analyse interfaces with mismatch strains. Introducing eigenstrains equal to 0.004 to the elastic mismatch increased the force by 15 times for a circular inclusion. The energy needed to move an edge dislocation through a domain filled with circular inclusions is 4% more than that needed for a domain with square shaped inclusions.

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  • 2016

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Role of defects interactions with embrittlement species in iron: a multiscale perspective

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Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a phenomenon that affects both the physical and chemical properties of several intrinsically ductile metals. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms behind HE has been of particular interest

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a phenomenon that affects both the physical and chemical properties of several intrinsically ductile metals. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms behind HE has been of particular interest in both experimental and modeling research. Discrepancies between experimental observations and modeling results have led to various proposals for HE mechanisms. Therefore, to gain insights into HE mechanisms in iron, this dissertation aims to investigate several key issues involving HE such as: a) the incipient crack tip events; b) the cohesive strength of grain boundaries (GBs); c) the dislocation-GB interactions and d) the dislocation mobility.

The crack tip, which presents a preferential trap site for hydrogen segregation, was examined using atomistic methods and the continuum based Rice-Thompson criterion as sufficient concentration of hydrogen can alter the crack tip deformation mechanism. Results suggest that there is a plausible co-existence of the adsorption induced dislocation emission and hydrogen enhanced decohesion mechanisms. In the case of GB-hydrogen interaction, we observed that the segregation of hydrogen along the interface leads to a reduction in cohesive strength resulting in intergranular failure. A methodology was further developed to quantify the role of the GB structure on this behavior.

GBs play a fundamental role in determining the strengthening mechanisms acting as an impediment to the dislocation motion; however, the presence of an unsurmountable barrier for a dislocation can generate slip localization that could further lead to intergranular crack initiation. It was found that the presence of hydrogen increases the strain energy stored within the GB which could lead to a transition in failure mode. Finally, in the case of body centered cubic metals, understanding the complex screw dislocation motion is critical to the development of an accurate continuum description of the plastic behavior. Further, the presence of hydrogen has been shown to drastically alter the plastic deformation, but the precise role of hydrogen is still unclear. Thus, the role of hydrogen on the dislocation mobility was examined using density functional theory and atomistic simulations. Overall, this dissertation provides a novel atomic-scale understanding of the HE mechanism and development of multiscale tools for future endeavors.

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  • 2015

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Pillar initiated growth of high indium content bulk InGaN to improve the material quality for photonic devices

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The goal of this research was to reduce dislocations and strain in high indium content bulk InGaN to improve quality for optical devices. In an attempt to achieve this goal,

The goal of this research was to reduce dislocations and strain in high indium content bulk InGaN to improve quality for optical devices. In an attempt to achieve this goal, InGaN pillars were grown with compositions that matched the composition of the bulk InGaN grown on top. Pillar height and density were optimized to facilitate coalescence on top of the pillars. It was expected that dislocations within the pillars would bend to side facets, thereby reducing the dislocation density in the bulk overgrowth, however this was not observed. It was also expected that pillars would be completely relaxed at the interface with the substrate. It was shown that pillars are mostly relaxed, but not completely. Mechanisms are proposed to explain why threading dislocations did not bend and how complete relaxation may have been achieved by mechanisms outside of interfacial misfit dislocation formation. Phase separation was not observed by TEM but may be related to the limitations of the sample or measurements. High indium observed at facets and stacking faults could be related to the extra photoluminescence peaks measured. This research focused on the InGaN pillars and first stages of coalescence on top of the pillars, saving bulk growth and device optimization for future research.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Characterization of the structural and optical properties of III-V semiconductor materials for solar cell applications

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The work contained in this dissertation is focused on the structural and optical properties of III-V semiconductor structures for solar cell applications. By using transmission electron microscopy, many of their

The work contained in this dissertation is focused on the structural and optical properties of III-V semiconductor structures for solar cell applications. By using transmission electron microscopy, many of their structural properties have been investigated, including morphology, defects, and strain relaxation. The optical properties of the semiconductor structures have been studied by photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence.

Part of this work is focused on InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in AlGaAs matrices. This QD system is important for the realization of intermediate-band solar cells, which has three light absorption paths for high efficiency photovoltaics. The suppression of plastic strain relaxation in the QDs shows a significant improvement of the optoelectronic properties. A partial capping followed by a thermal annealing step is used to achieve spool-shaped QDs with a uniform height following the thickness of the capping layer. This step keeps the height of the QDs below a critical value that is required for plastic relaxation. The spool-shaped QDs exhibit two photoluminescence peaks that are attributed to ground and excited state transitions. The luminescence peak width is associated with the QD diameter distribution. An InAs cover layer formed during annealing is found responsible for the loss of the confinement of the excited states in smaller QDs.

The second part of this work is focused on the investigation of the InxGa1-xN thin films having different bandgaps for double-junction solar cells. InxGa1-xN films with x ≤ 0.15 were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The defects in films with different indium contents have been studied. Their effect on the optical properties of the film have been investigated by cathodoluminescence. InxGa1-xN films with indium contents higher than 20% were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The strain relaxation in the films has been measured from electron diffraction patterns taken in cross-sectional TEM specimens. Moiré fringes in some of the films reveal interfacial strain relaxation that is explained by a critical thickness model.

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Date Created
  • 2016