Matching Items (6)

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Postpartum adaptation and competence of mothers who use hypnosis to birth

Description

This qualitative study investigated the postpartum experiences of mothers who used hypnosis to birth. This research project was based on a constructivist version of Grounded Theory. Qualitative inquiry and analysis

This qualitative study investigated the postpartum experiences of mothers who used hypnosis to birth. This research project was based on a constructivist version of Grounded Theory. Qualitative inquiry and analysis were conducted on 15 semi-structured interviews; two pilot interviews were also conducted. Phone and in-person interviews were completed with Caucasian, Hispanic, and multiracial mothers who were between one month and 15 months postpartum. The following 12 major themes emerged: bonded with child, development of self-efficacy, breastfeeding success, family criticism, online support, impact on family, practice effect, amazement to misevaluation, induction overwhelm, holistic benefits, minimal post partum depression, and birth stories. Mothers of two or more children appreciated birth more, reported an increased sense of calm and closeness within their nuclear and extended family, believed that the benefits of hypnosis for birthing assisted in the areas of bonding with their newborn, self-efficacy, breastfeeding and overall postpartum success. First-time mothers appreciated the physical aspect of recovery after delivery. They emphasized the birth narrative despite cultural differences in sharing their stories. Although they attributed much success to the use of hypnosis for birthing, they tended to make more indirect attributions to the bond with their child, self-efficacy, breastfeeding, and overall postpartum success. Mothers who required a c-section, epidural, or induction during birth experienced feelings of guilt and viewed hypnosis as an isolated tool for birth and a tool to reduce guilt and stress postpartum. Mothers who birthed naturally used hypnosis postpartum in more ways. Hispanic mothers expressed greater difficulty with balancing their roles as a career woman and mother. They had different expectations around the participation of their partner during birth preparation and postpartum. Breastfeeding was most important to this group and reflected communal values. Hypnosis for birthing was described as being helpful for mothers who had a psychological history with depression, anxiety, or trauma. Participants reported overall effectiveness of hypnosis for birthing methods despite mixed reactions from birthing professionals, family, and friends. The importance of these findings for counseling psychology is discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Interest in alternative approaches for gestational weight gain and maternal stress management: a survey

Description

Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Studies have reported more than 70% of pregnant women gain excessive weight which may pose increased maternal

Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Studies have reported more than 70% of pregnant women gain excessive weight which may pose increased maternal and fetal risks. Little is known about the relationships of GWG to behavioral factors (i.e., physical activity, sleep, social support) and maternal mental health (i.e., stress, anxiety, depression) during pregnancy. This descriptive, cross-sectional study explored the relationships of GWG to behavioral factors and maternal mental health during pregnancy. Secondarily, this study described the preferences, uses of, and interests in alternative approaches as well as the mental health differences between users and non-users of alternative approaches during pregnancy. A national survey was administered to women ≥8 weeks pregnant, ≥18 years old, and residing in the United States (N=968). Bivariate correlations were used to determine relationships between GWG and variables of interest. Independent t-tests were used to observe mental health differences between users and non-users of alternative approaches. Data were analyzed throughout pregnancy and by trimester. Throughout pregnancy, significant relationships were found in GWG to stressful events (r=-.112, p<.01), depression (r=.066, p<.05), mindfulness (r=-.067, p<.05), and sleep (r=.089, p<.01). When GWG was assessed by trimester, stressful events were significant in the second (r=-.216, p<.01) and third trimesters (r=-.085, p<.05). Depression remained positively related to GWG in the first (r=.409, p<.01) and second trimesters (r=.162, p<.01). A positive relationship emerged between GWG and anxiety in the first trimester (r=.340, p<.01) and physical activity became significant in the second (r=-.136; p<.05) and third trimesters (r=-.100; p<.05). Mindfulness was the only variable significantly related to GWG throughout all time points. Mean anxiety (d=.236; p=.001) and depression (d=.265; p<.001) scores were significantly lower in users compared to non-users of alternative approaches throughout pregnancy and when assessed by trimester anxiety (d=.424; p=.001) and depression (d=.526; p<.001) were significant in the second trimester. This study provides a framework for future analyses in GWG and maternal mental health. The information presented here may inform future interventions to test the effectiveness of alternative approaches to simultaneously manage maternal mental health and GWG due to the integrative nature of alternative approaches.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Links between prenatal stress and obstetrical complications and infant behavior: a twin design

Description

The main objective of this study was to use a genetically-informative design to examine the putative influences of maternal perceived prenatal stress, obstetrical complications, and gestational age on infant dysregulation,

The main objective of this study was to use a genetically-informative design to examine the putative influences of maternal perceived prenatal stress, obstetrical complications, and gestational age on infant dysregulation, competence, and developmental maturity. Specifically, whether or not prenatal and obstetrical environmental conditions modified the heritability of infant outcomes was examined. A total of 291 mothers were interviewed when their twin infants were 12 months of age. Pregnancy and twin birth medical records were obtained to code obstetrical data. Utilizing behavioral genetic models, results indicated maternal perceived prenatal stress moderated genetic and environmental influences on developmental maturity whereas obstetrical complications moderated shared environmental influences on infant competence and nonshared environmental influences on developmental maturity. Gestational age moderated the heritability and nonshared environment of infant dysregulation, shared and nonshared environmental influences on competence, and nonshared environmental influences on developmental maturity. Taken together, prenatal and obstetric conditions were important nonlinear influences on infant outcomes. An evolutionary perspective may provide a framework for these findings, such that the prenatal environment programs the fetus to be adaptive to current environmental contexts. Specifically, prenatal stress governs gene expression through epigenetic processes. Findings highlight the utility of a genetically informative design for elucidating the role of prenatal and obstetric conditions in the etiology of infant developmental outcomes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Stress and poor physical and mental health among postpartum Mexican American women: a test of heart rate variability in promoting resilience

Description

Low-income Mexican American women face significant risk for poor health during the postpartum period. Chronic stressors are theorized to negatively impact mental and physical health outcomes. However, physiological factors associated

Low-income Mexican American women face significant risk for poor health during the postpartum period. Chronic stressors are theorized to negatively impact mental and physical health outcomes. However, physiological factors associated with increased self-regulatory capacity, such as resting heart rate variability, may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), the interactive influence of resting heart rate variability and three chronic prenatal stressors (daily hassles, negative life events, economic stress) on maternal cortisol output, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health at 12 weeks postpartum was assessed. The hypothesized interactive effects between resting heart rate variability and the chronic prenatal stressors on the health outcomes were not supported by the data. However, results showed that a higher number of prenatal daily hassles was associated with increased postpartum depressive symptoms, and a higher number of prenatal negative life events was associated with lower postpartum cortisol output. These results suggest that elevated chronic stress during the prenatal period may increase risk for poor health during the postpartum period.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Infant temperamental reactivity and emerging behavior problems in a Mexican American sample

Description

Clinically meaningful emotional and behavioral problems are thought to be present beginning in infancy, and may be reliably assessed in children as young as 12 months old. However, few studies

Clinically meaningful emotional and behavioral problems are thought to be present beginning in infancy, and may be reliably assessed in children as young as 12 months old. However, few studies have investigated early correlates of emotional and behavioral problems assessed in infancy. The current study investigates the direct and interactive contributions of early infant and caregiver characteristics thought to play an important role in the ontogeny of behavior problems. Specifically, the study examines: (1) the links between temperamental reactivity across the first year of life and behavior problems at 18 months, (2) whether children high in temperamental reactivity are differentially susceptible to variations in maternal sensitivity, (3) the extent to which child temperamental risk or susceptibility may further be explained by mothers’ experiences of stressful life events (SLEs) during and before pregnancy. Data were collected from 322 Mexican American families during prenatal, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-week home interviews, as well as during 12- and 18-month lab interviews. Mother reports of SLEs were obtained between 23-40 weeks gestation; temperamental negativity and surgency at 6 weeks and 12 months; and internalizing and externalizing behaviors at 18 months. Maternal sensitivity during structured mother-infant interaction tasks at the 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-week visits was assessed by objective observer ratings. Study findings indicated that maternal SLEs before birth were associated with more infant negativity across the first year of life, and that negativity in turn was associated with more internalizing problems at 18 months. Ecological stressors thought to be associated with sociodemographic risk factors such as low-income and ethnic minority status may begin to exert cascades of influence on children’s developmental outcomes even before birth.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Prenatal stress and infant regulatory capacity

Description

The development of self-regulation is believed to play a crucial role in predicting later psychopathology and is believed to begin in early childhood. The early postpartum period is particularly important

The development of self-regulation is believed to play a crucial role in predicting later psychopathology and is believed to begin in early childhood. The early postpartum period is particularly important in laying the groundwork for later self-regulation as infants' dispositional traits interact with caregivers' co-regulatory behaviors to produce the earliest forms of self-regulation. Moreover, although emerging literature suggests that infants' exposure to maternal stress even before birth may be integral in determining children's self-regulatory capacities, the complex pathways that characterize these developmental processes remain unclear. The current study considers the complex, transactional processes in a high-risk, Mexican American sample. Data were collected from 305 Mexican American infants and their mothers during prenatal, 6- and 12-week home interviews. Mother self-reports of stress were obtained prenatally between 34-37 weeks gestation. Mother reports of infant temperamental negativity and surgency were obtained at 6-weeks as were observed global ratings of maternal sensitivity during a structured peek-a-boo task. Microcoded ratings of infants' engagement orienting and self-comforting behaviors were obtained during the 12-week peek-a-boo task. Study findings suggest that self-comforting and orienting behaviors help to modulate infants' experiences of distress, and also that prenatal stress influences infants' engagement in each of those regulatory behaviors, both directly by influence tendencies to engage in orienting behaviors and indirectly by programming higher levels of infant negativity and surgency, both of which may confer risk for later regulatory disadvantage. Advancing our understandings about the nature of these developmental pathways could have significant implications for targets of early intervention in this high-risk population.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013