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Modeling & analysis of a closed loop class D audio amplifier for PSR improvement

Description

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The

Class D Amplifiers are widely used in portable systems such as mobile phones to achieve high efficiency. The demands of portable electronics for low power consumption to extend battery life and reduce heat dissipation mandate efficient, high-performance audio amplifiers. The high efficiency of Class D amplifiers (CDAs) makes them particularly attractive for portable applications. The Digital class D amplifier is an interesting solution to increase the efficiency of embedded systems. However, this solution is not good enough in terms of PWM stage linearity and power supply rejection. An efficient control is needed to correct the error sources in order to get a high fidelity sound quality in the whole audio range of frequencies. A fundamental analysis on various error sources due to non idealities in the power stage have been discussed here with key focus on Power supply perturbations driving the Power stage of a Class D Audio Amplifier. Two types of closed loop Digital Class D architecture for PSRR improvement have been proposed and modeled. Double sided uniform sampling modulation has been used. One of the architecture uses feedback around the power stage and the second architecture uses feedback into digital domain. Simulation & experimental results confirm that the closed loop PSRR & PS-IMD improve by around 30-40 dB and 25 dB respectively.

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Date Created
2012

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Design and analysis of a dual supply class H audio amplifier

Description

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to expect. Class D amplifiers deliver on the goal of increased efficiency, but at the cost of distortion. Class AB amplifiers have low efficiency, but high linearity. By modulating the supply voltage of a Class AB amplifier to make a Class H amplifier, the efficiency can increase while still maintaining the Class AB level of linearity. A 92dB Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) Class AB amplifier and a Class H amplifier were designed in a 0.24um process for portable audio applications. Using a multiphase buck converter increased the efficiency of the Class H amplifier while still maintaining a fast response time to respond to audio frequencies. The Class H amplifier had an efficiency above the Class AB amplifier by 5-7% from 5-30mW of output power without affecting the total harmonic distortion (THD) at the design specifications. The Class H amplifier design met all design specifications and showed performance comparable to the designed Class AB amplifier across 1kHz-20kHz and 0.01mW-30mW. The Class H design was able to output 30mW into 16Ohms without any increase in THD. This design shows that Class H amplifiers merit more research into their potential for increasing efficiency of audio amplifiers and that even simple designs can give significant increases in efficiency without compromising linearity.

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Date Created
2013

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High slew-rate adaptive biasing hybrid envelope tracking supply modulator for LTE applications

Description

As wireless communication enters smartphone era, more complicated communication technologies are being used to transmit higher data rate. Power amplifier (PA) has to work in back-off region, while this inevitably reduces battery life for cellphones. Various techniques have been reported

As wireless communication enters smartphone era, more complicated communication technologies are being used to transmit higher data rate. Power amplifier (PA) has to work in back-off region, while this inevitably reduces battery life for cellphones. Various techniques have been reported to increase PA efficiency, such as envelope elimination and restoration (EER) and envelope tracking (ET). However, state of the art ET supply modulators failed to address high efficiency, high slew rate, and accurate tracking concurrently.

In this dissertation, a linear-switch mode hybrid ET supply modulator utilizing adaptive biasing and gain enhanced current mirror operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with class-AB output stage in parallel with a switching regulator is presented. In comparison to a conventional OTA design with similar quiescent current consumption, proposed approach improves positive and negative slew rate from 50 V/µs to 93.4 V/µs and -87 V/µs to -152.5 V/µs respectively, dc gain from 45 dB to 67 dB while consuming same amount of quiescent current. The proposed hybrid supply modulator achieves 83% peak efficiency, power added efficiency (PAE) of 42.3% at 26.2 dBm for a 10 MHz 7.24 dB peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) LTE signal and improves PAE by 8% at 6 dB back off from 26.2 dBm power amplifier (PA) output power with respect to fixed supply. With a 10 MHz 7.24 dB PAPR QPSK LTE signal the ET PA system achieves adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) of -37.7 dBc and error vector magnitude (EVM) of 4.5% at 26.2 dBm PA output power, while with a 10 MHz 8.15 dB PAPR 64QAM LTE signal the ET PA system achieves ACLR of -35.6 dBc and EVM of 6% at 26 dBm PA output power without digital pre-distortion (DPD). The proposed supply modulator core circuit occupies 1.1 mm2 die area, and is fabricated in a 0.18 µm CMOS technology.

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Created

Date Created
2017

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High-Efficiency Doherty-Based Power Amplifiers Using GaN Technology For Wireless Infrastructure Applications

Description

The continuing advancement of modulation standards with newer generations of cellular technology, promises ever increasing data rate and bandwidth efficiency. However, these modulation schemes present high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) even after applying crest factor reduction. Being

The continuing advancement of modulation standards with newer generations of cellular technology, promises ever increasing data rate and bandwidth efficiency. However, these modulation schemes present high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) even after applying crest factor reduction. Being the most power-hungry component in the radio frequency (RF) transmitter, power amplifiers (PA) for infrastructure applications, need to operate efficiently at the presence of these high PAPR signals while maintaining reasonable linearity performance which could be improved by moderate digital pre-distortion (DPD) techniques. This strict requirement of operating efficiently at average power level while being capable of delivering the peak power, made the load modulated PAs such as Doherty PA, Outphasing PA, various Envelope Tracking PAs, Polar transmitters and most recently the load modulated balanced PA, the prime candidates for such application. However, due to its simpler architecture and ability to deliver RF power efficiently with good linearity performance has made Doherty PA (DPA) the most popular solution and has been deployed almost exclusively for wireless infrastructure application all over the world.

Although DPAs has been very successful at amplifying the high PAPR signals, most recent advancements in cellular technology has opted for higher PAPR based signals at wider bandwidth. This lead to increased research and development work to innovate advanced Doherty architectures which are more efficient at back-off (BO) power levels compared to traditional DPAs. In this dissertation, three such advanced Doherty architectures and/or techniques are proposed to achieve high efficiency at further BO power level compared to traditional architecture using symmetrical devices for carrier and peaking PAs. Gallium Nitride (GaN) based high-electron-mobility (HEMT) technology has been used to design and fabricate the DPAs to validate the proposed advanced techniques for higher efficiency with good linearity performance at BO power levels.

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Created

Date Created
2018

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CMOS integrated power amplifiers for RF reconfigurable and digital transmitters

Description

This dissertation focuses on three different efficiency enhancement methods that are applicable to handset applications. These proposed designs are based on three critical requirements for handset application: 1) Small form factor, 2) CMOS compatibility and 3) high power handling. The

This dissertation focuses on three different efficiency enhancement methods that are applicable to handset applications. These proposed designs are based on three critical requirements for handset application: 1) Small form factor, 2) CMOS compatibility and 3) high power handling. The three presented methodologies are listed below:

1) A transformer-based power combiner architecture for out-phasing transmitters

2) A current steering DAC-based average power tracking circuit for on-chip power amplifiers (PA)

3) A CMOS-based driver stage for GaN-based switched-mode power amplifiers applicable to fully digital transmitters

This thesis highlights the trends in wireless handsets, the motivates the need for fully-integrated CMOS power amplifier solutions and presents the three novel techniques for reconfigurable and digital CMOS-based PAs. Chapter 3, presents the transformer-based power combiner for out-phasing transmitters. The simulation results reveal that this technique is able to shrink the power combiner area, which is one of the largest parts of the transmitter, by about 50% and as a result, enhances the output power density by 3dB.

The average power tracking technique (APT) integrated with an on-chip CMOS-based power amplifier is explained in Chapter 4. This system is able to achieve up to 32dBm saturated output power with a linear power gain of 20dB in a 45nm CMOS SOI process. The maximum efficiency improvement is about ∆η=15% compared to the same PA without APT. Measurement results show that the proposed method is able to amplify an enhanced-EDGE modulated input signal with a data rate of 70.83kb/sec and generate more than 27dBm of average output power with EVM<5%.

Although small form factor, high battery lifetime, and high volume integration motivate the need for fully digital CMOS transmitters, the output power generated by this type of transmitter is not high enough to satisfy the communication standards. As a result, compound materials such as GaN or GaAs are usually being used in handset applications to increase the output power. Chapter 5 focuses on the analysis and design of two CMOS based driver architectures (cascode and house of cards) for driving a GaN power amplifier. The presented results show that the drivers are able to generate ∆Vout=5V, which is required by the compound transistor, and operate up to 2GHz. Since the CMOS driver is expected to drive an off-chip capacitive load, the interface components, such as bond wires, and decoupling and pad capacitors, play a critical role in the output transient response. Therefore, extensive analysis and simulation results have been done on the interface circuits to investigate their effects on RF transmitter performance. The presented results show that the maximum operating frequency when the driver is connected to a 4pF capacitive load is about 2GHz, which is perfectly matched with the reported values in prior literature.

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Created

Date Created
2019

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Hybrid Envelope Tracking Supply Modulator Analysis and Design for Wideband Applications

Description

A wideband hybrid envelope tracking modulator utilizing a hysteretic-controlled three-level switching converter and a slew-rate enhanced linear amplifierer is presented. In addition to smaller ripple and lower losses of three-level switching converters, employing the proposed hysteresis control loop results in

A wideband hybrid envelope tracking modulator utilizing a hysteretic-controlled three-level switching converter and a slew-rate enhanced linear amplifierer is presented. In addition to smaller ripple and lower losses of three-level switching converters, employing the proposed hysteresis control loop results in a higher speed loop and wider bandwidth converter, enabling over 80MHz of switching frequency. A concurrent sensor circuit monitors and regulates the flying capacitor voltage VCF and eliminates conventional required calibration loop to control it. The hysteretic-controlled three-level switching converter provides a high percentage of power amplifier supply load current with lower ripple, reducing the linear amplifier high-frequency current and ripple cancellation current, improving the overall system efficiency. A slew-rate enhancement (SRE) circuit is employed in the linear amplifier resulting in slew-rate of

over 307V/us and bandwidth of over 275MHz for the linear amplifier. The slew-rate enhancement circuit provides a parallel auxiliary current path directly to the gate of the class-AB output stage transistors, speeding-up the charging or discharging of out-

put without modifying the operating point of the remaining linear amplifier, while maintaining the quiescent current of the class-AB stage. The supply modulator is fabricated in 65nm CMOS process. The measurement results show the tracking of LTE-40MHz envelope with 93% peak efficiency at 1W output power, while the SRE is disabled. Enabling the SRE it can track LTE-80MHz envelope with peak efficiency of 91%.

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Agent

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Date Created
2019