Matching Items (11)

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High-Efficiency Doherty-Based Power Amplifiers Using GaN Technology For Wireless Infrastructure Applications

Description

The continuing advancement of modulation standards with newer generations of cellular technology, promises ever increasing data rate and bandwidth efficiency. However, these modulation schemes present high peak to average power

The continuing advancement of modulation standards with newer generations of cellular technology, promises ever increasing data rate and bandwidth efficiency. However, these modulation schemes present high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) even after applying crest factor reduction. Being the most power-hungry component in the radio frequency (RF) transmitter, power amplifiers (PA) for infrastructure applications, need to operate efficiently at the presence of these high PAPR signals while maintaining reasonable linearity performance which could be improved by moderate digital pre-distortion (DPD) techniques. This strict requirement of operating efficiently at average power level while being capable of delivering the peak power, made the load modulated PAs such as Doherty PA, Outphasing PA, various Envelope Tracking PAs, Polar transmitters and most recently the load modulated balanced PA, the prime candidates for such application. However, due to its simpler architecture and ability to deliver RF power efficiently with good linearity performance has made Doherty PA (DPA) the most popular solution and has been deployed almost exclusively for wireless infrastructure application all over the world.

Although DPAs has been very successful at amplifying the high PAPR signals, most recent advancements in cellular technology has opted for higher PAPR based signals at wider bandwidth. This lead to increased research and development work to innovate advanced Doherty architectures which are more efficient at back-off (BO) power levels compared to traditional DPAs. In this dissertation, three such advanced Doherty architectures and/or techniques are proposed to achieve high efficiency at further BO power level compared to traditional architecture using symmetrical devices for carrier and peaking PAs. Gallium Nitride (GaN) based high-electron-mobility (HEMT) technology has been used to design and fabricate the DPAs to validate the proposed advanced techniques for higher efficiency with good linearity performance at BO power levels.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Energy efficient RF transmitter design using enhanced breakdown voltage SOI-CMOS compatible MESFETs

Description

The high cut-off frequency of deep sub-micron CMOS technologies has enabled the integration of radio frequency (RF) transceivers with digital circuits. However, the challenging point is the integration of RF

The high cut-off frequency of deep sub-micron CMOS technologies has enabled the integration of radio frequency (RF) transceivers with digital circuits. However, the challenging point is the integration of RF power amplifiers, mainly due to the low breakdown voltage of CMOS transistors. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) have been introduced to remedy the limited headroom concern in CMOS technologies. The MESFETs presented in this thesis have been fabricated on different SOI-CMOS processes without making any change to the standard fabrication steps and offer 2-30 times higher breakdown voltage than the MOSFETs on the same process. This thesis explains the design steps of high efficiency and wideband RF transmitters using the proposed SOI-CMOS compatible MESFETs. This task involves DC and RF characterization of MESFET devices, along with providing a compact Spice model for simulation purposes. This thesis presents the design of several SOI-MESFET RF power amplifiers operating at 433, 900 and 1800 MHz with ~40% bandwidth. Measurement results show a peak power added efficiency (PAE) of 55% and a peak output power of 22.5 dBm. The RF-PAs were designed to operate in Class-AB mode to minimize the linearity degradation. Class-AB power amplifiers lead to poor power added efficiency, especially when fed with signals with high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) such as wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA). Polar transmitters have been introduced to improve the efficiency of RF-PAs at backed-off powers. A MESFET based envelope tracking (ET) polar transmitter was designed and measured. A low drop-out voltage regulator (LDO) was used as the supply modulator of this polar transmitter. MESFETs are depletion mode devices; therefore, they can be configured in a source follower configuration to have better stability and higher bandwidth that MOSFET based LDOs. Measurement results show 350 MHz bandwidth while driving a 10 pF capacitive load. A novel polar transmitter is introduced in this thesis to alleviate some of the limitations associated with polar transmitters. The proposed architecture uses the backgate terminal of a partially depleted transistor on SOI process, which relaxes the bandwidth and efficiency requirements of the envelope amplifier in a polar transmitter. The measurement results of the proposed transmitter demonstrate more than three times PAE improvement at 6-dB backed-off output power, compared to the traditional RF transmitters.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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CMOS integrated power amplifiers for RF reconfigurable and digital transmitters

Description

This dissertation focuses on three different efficiency enhancement methods that are applicable to handset applications. These proposed designs are based on three critical requirements for handset application: 1) Small form

This dissertation focuses on three different efficiency enhancement methods that are applicable to handset applications. These proposed designs are based on three critical requirements for handset application: 1) Small form factor, 2) CMOS compatibility and 3) high power handling. The three presented methodologies are listed below:

1) A transformer-based power combiner architecture for out-phasing transmitters

2) A current steering DAC-based average power tracking circuit for on-chip power amplifiers (PA)

3) A CMOS-based driver stage for GaN-based switched-mode power amplifiers applicable to fully digital transmitters

This thesis highlights the trends in wireless handsets, the motivates the need for fully-integrated CMOS power amplifier solutions and presents the three novel techniques for reconfigurable and digital CMOS-based PAs. Chapter 3, presents the transformer-based power combiner for out-phasing transmitters. The simulation results reveal that this technique is able to shrink the power combiner area, which is one of the largest parts of the transmitter, by about 50% and as a result, enhances the output power density by 3dB.

The average power tracking technique (APT) integrated with an on-chip CMOS-based power amplifier is explained in Chapter 4. This system is able to achieve up to 32dBm saturated output power with a linear power gain of 20dB in a 45nm CMOS SOI process. The maximum efficiency improvement is about ∆η=15% compared to the same PA without APT. Measurement results show that the proposed method is able to amplify an enhanced-EDGE modulated input signal with a data rate of 70.83kb/sec and generate more than 27dBm of average output power with EVM<5%.

Although small form factor, high battery lifetime, and high volume integration motivate the need for fully digital CMOS transmitters, the output power generated by this type of transmitter is not high enough to satisfy the communication standards. As a result, compound materials such as GaN or GaAs are usually being used in handset applications to increase the output power. Chapter 5 focuses on the analysis and design of two CMOS based driver architectures (cascode and house of cards) for driving a GaN power amplifier. The presented results show that the drivers are able to generate ∆Vout=5V, which is required by the compound transistor, and operate up to 2GHz. Since the CMOS driver is expected to drive an off-chip capacitive load, the interface components, such as bond wires, and decoupling and pad capacitors, play a critical role in the output transient response. Therefore, extensive analysis and simulation results have been done on the interface circuits to investigate their effects on RF transmitter performance. The presented results show that the maximum operating frequency when the driver is connected to a 4pF capacitive load is about 2GHz, which is perfectly matched with the reported values in prior literature.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Hybrid Envelope Tracking Supply Modulator Analysis and Design for Wideband Applications

Description

A wideband hybrid envelope tracking modulator utilizing a hysteretic-controlled three-level switching converter and a slew-rate enhanced linear amplifierer is presented. In addition to smaller ripple and lower losses of three-level

A wideband hybrid envelope tracking modulator utilizing a hysteretic-controlled three-level switching converter and a slew-rate enhanced linear amplifierer is presented. In addition to smaller ripple and lower losses of three-level switching converters, employing the proposed hysteresis control loop results in a higher speed loop and wider bandwidth converter, enabling over 80MHz of switching frequency. A concurrent sensor circuit monitors and regulates the flying capacitor voltage VCF and eliminates conventional required calibration loop to control it. The hysteretic-controlled three-level switching converter provides a high percentage of power amplifier supply load current with lower ripple, reducing the linear amplifier high-frequency current and ripple cancellation current, improving the overall system efficiency. A slew-rate enhancement (SRE) circuit is employed in the linear amplifier resulting in slew-rate of

over 307V/us and bandwidth of over 275MHz for the linear amplifier. The slew-rate enhancement circuit provides a parallel auxiliary current path directly to the gate of the class-AB output stage transistors, speeding-up the charging or discharging of out-

put without modifying the operating point of the remaining linear amplifier, while maintaining the quiescent current of the class-AB stage. The supply modulator is fabricated in 65nm CMOS process. The measurement results show the tracking of LTE-40MHz envelope with 93% peak efficiency at 1W output power, while the SRE is disabled. Enabling the SRE it can track LTE-80MHz envelope with peak efficiency of 91%.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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High slew-rate adaptive biasing hybrid envelope tracking supply modulator for LTE applications

Description

As wireless communication enters smartphone era, more complicated communication technologies are being used to transmit higher data rate. Power amplifier (PA) has to work in back-off region, while this inevitably

As wireless communication enters smartphone era, more complicated communication technologies are being used to transmit higher data rate. Power amplifier (PA) has to work in back-off region, while this inevitably reduces battery life for cellphones. Various techniques have been reported to increase PA efficiency, such as envelope elimination and restoration (EER) and envelope tracking (ET). However, state of the art ET supply modulators failed to address high efficiency, high slew rate, and accurate tracking concurrently.

In this dissertation, a linear-switch mode hybrid ET supply modulator utilizing adaptive biasing and gain enhanced current mirror operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with class-AB output stage in parallel with a switching regulator is presented. In comparison to a conventional OTA design with similar quiescent current consumption, proposed approach improves positive and negative slew rate from 50 V/µs to 93.4 V/µs and -87 V/µs to -152.5 V/µs respectively, dc gain from 45 dB to 67 dB while consuming same amount of quiescent current. The proposed hybrid supply modulator achieves 83% peak efficiency, power added efficiency (PAE) of 42.3% at 26.2 dBm for a 10 MHz 7.24 dB peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) LTE signal and improves PAE by 8% at 6 dB back off from 26.2 dBm power amplifier (PA) output power with respect to fixed supply. With a 10 MHz 7.24 dB PAPR QPSK LTE signal the ET PA system achieves adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) of -37.7 dBc and error vector magnitude (EVM) of 4.5% at 26.2 dBm PA output power, while with a 10 MHz 8.15 dB PAPR 64QAM LTE signal the ET PA system achieves ACLR of -35.6 dBc and EVM of 6% at 26 dBm PA output power without digital pre-distortion (DPD). The proposed supply modulator core circuit occupies 1.1 mm2 die area, and is fabricated in a 0.18 µm CMOS technology.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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GaN-on-Si RF switched mode power amplifiers for non-constant envelope signals

Description

This work implements three switched mode power amplifier topologies namely inverse class-D (CMCD), push-pull class-E and inverse push-pull class-E, in a GaN-on-Si process for medium power level (5-10W) femto/pico-cells base-station

This work implements three switched mode power amplifier topologies namely inverse class-D (CMCD), push-pull class-E and inverse push-pull class-E, in a GaN-on-Si process for medium power level (5-10W) femto/pico-cells base-station applications. The presented power amplifiers address practical implementation design constraints and explore the fundamental performance limitations of switched-mode power amplifiers for cellular band. The designs are analyzed and compared with respect to non-idealities like finite on-resistance, finite-Q of inductors, bond-wire effects, input signal duty cycle, and supply and component variations. These architectures are designed for non-constant envelope inputs in the form of digitally modulated signals such as RFPWM, which undergo duty cycle variation. After comparing the three topologies, this work concludes that the inverse push-pull class-E power amplifier shows lower efficiency degradation at reduced duty cycles. For GaN based discrete power amplifiers which have less drain capacitance compared to GaAs or CMOS and where the switch loss is dominated by wire-bonds, an inverse push-pull class-E gives highest output power at highest efficiency. Push-pull class-E can give efficiencies comparable to inverse push-pull class-E in presence of bondwires on tuning the Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS) network components but at a lower output power. Current-Mode Class-D (CMCD) is affected most by the presence of bondwires and gives least output power and efficiency compared to other two topologies. For systems dominated by drain capacitance loss or which has no bondwires, the CMCD and push-pull class-E gives better output power than inverse push-pull class-E. However, CMCD is more suitable for high breakdown voltage process.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Output bandwidth limitations of basestation power amplifier design and its implementation using Doherty amplifier

Description

This thesis is a study of Bandwidth limitation of basestation power amplifier and its Doherty application. Fundamentally, bandwidth of a power amplifier (PA) is limited by both its input and

This thesis is a study of Bandwidth limitation of basestation power amplifier and its Doherty application. Fundamentally, bandwidth of a power amplifier (PA) is limited by both its input and output prematch networks and its Doherty architecture, specifically the impedance inverter between the main and auxiliary amplifier. In this study, only the output prematch network and the Doherty architecture follows are being investigated. A new proposed impedance inverter in the Doherty architecture exhibits an extended bandwidth compared to traditional quarterwave line.

Base on the loadline analysis, output impedance of the power amplifier can be represented by a loadline resistor and an output shunt capacitor. Base on this simple model, the maximum allowed bandwidth of the output impedance of the power amplifier can be estimated using the Bode-Fano method. However, since power amplifier is in fact nonlinear, harmonic balance simulation is used to loadpull the device across a broad range of frequencies. Base on the simulated large signal impedance at maximum power, the prematch circuitry can be designed. On a system level, the prematch power amplifier is used in Doherty amplifier. Two different prematch circuitries, T- section and shunt L methods are investigated along with their comparison in the Doherty architecture at both back off power and peak power condition. The last section of the thesis will be incorporating the proposed impedance inverter structure between the main and auxiliary amplifiers.

The simulated results showed the shunt L prematch topology has the least impedance dispersion across frequency. Along with the new impedance inverter structure, the 65% efficiency bandwidth improves by 50% compared to the original impedance inverter structure at back off power level.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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CMOS MESFET Cascode Amplifiers for RFIC Applications

Description

There is an ever-increasing demand for higher bandwidth and data rate ensuing from exploding number of radio frequency integrated systems and devices. As stated in the Shannon-Hartley theorem, the maximum

There is an ever-increasing demand for higher bandwidth and data rate ensuing from exploding number of radio frequency integrated systems and devices. As stated in the Shannon-Hartley theorem, the maximum achievable data rate of a communication channel is linearly proportional to the system bandwidth. This is the main driving force behind pushing wireless systems towards millimeter-wave frequency range, where larger bandwidth is available at a higher carrier frequency. Observing the Moor’s law, highly scaled complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technologies provide fast transistors with a high unity power gain frequency which enables operating at millimeter-wave frequency range. CMOS is the compelling choice for digital and signal processing modules which concurrently offers high computation speed, low power consumption, and mass integration at a high manufacturing yield. One of the main shortcomings of the sub-micron CMOS technologies is the low breakdown voltage of the transistors that limits the dynamic range of the radio frequency (RF) power blocks, especially with the power amplifiers. Low voltage swing restricts the achievable output power which translates into low signal to noise ratio and degraded linearity. Extensive research has been done on proposing new design and IC fabrication techniques with the goal of generating higher output power in CMOS technology. The prominent drawbacks of these solutions are an increased die area, higher cost per design, and lower overall efficiency due to lossy passive components. In this dissertation, CMOS compatible metal–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFETs) are utilized to put forward a new solution to enhance the power amplifier’s breakdown voltage, gain and maximum output power. Requiring no change to the conventional CMOS process flow, this low cost approach allows direct incorporation of high voltage power MESFETs into silicon. High voltage MESFETs were employed in a cascode structure to push the amplifier’s cutoff frequency and unity power gain frequency to the 5G and K-band frequency range. This dissertation begins with CMOS compatible MESFET modeling and fabrication steps, and culminates in the discussion of amplifier design and optimization methodology, parasitic de-embedding steps, simulation and measurement results, and high resistivity RF substrate characterization.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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High efficiency design techniques for linear power amplifiers

Description

This thesis describes the design process used in the creation of a two stage cellular power amplifier. A background for understanding amplifier linearity, device properties, and ACLR estimation is provided.

This thesis describes the design process used in the creation of a two stage cellular power amplifier. A background for understanding amplifier linearity, device properties, and ACLR estimation is provided. An outline of the design goals is given with a focus on linearity with high efficiency. The full design is broken into smaller elements which are discussed in detail. The main contribution of this thesis is the description of a novel interstage matching network topology for increasing efficiency. Ultimately the full amplifier design is simulated and compared to the measured results and design goals. It was concluded that the design was successful, and used in a commercially available product.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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GaN HEMT modeling and design for millimeter and sub-millimeter wave power amplifiers through Monte Carlo particle-based device simulations

Description

The drive towards device scaling and large output power in millimeter and sub-millimeter wave power amplifiers results in a highly non-linear, out-of-equilibrium charge transport regime. Particle-based Full Band Monte Carlo

The drive towards device scaling and large output power in millimeter and sub-millimeter wave power amplifiers results in a highly non-linear, out-of-equilibrium charge transport regime. Particle-based Full Band Monte Carlo device simulators allow an accurate description of this carrier dynamics at the nanoscale. This work initially compares GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on the established Ga-face technology and the emerging N-face technology, through a modeling approach that allows a fair comparison, indicating that the N-face devices exhibit improved performance with respect to Ga-face ones due to the natural back-barrier confinement that mitigates short-channel-effects. An investigation is then carried out on the minimum aspect ratio (i.e. gate length to gate-to-channel-distance ratio) that limits short channel effects in ultra-scaled GaN and InP HEMTs, indicating that this value in GaN devices is 15 while in InP devices is 7.5. This difference is believed to be related to the different dielectric properties of the two materials, and the corresponding different electric field distributions. The dielectric effects of the passivation layer in millimeter-wave, high-power GaN HEMTs are also investigated, finding that the effective gate length is increased by fringing capacitances, enhanced by the dielectrics in regions adjacent to the gate for layers thicker than 5 nm, strongly affecting the frequency performance of deep sub-micron devices. Lastly, efficient Full Band Monte Carlo particle-based device simulations of the large-signal performance of mm-wave transistor power amplifiers with high-Q matching networks are reported for the first time. In particular, a CellularMonte Carlo (CMC) code is self-consistently coupled with a Harmonic Balance (HB) frequency domain circuit solver. Due to the iterative nature of the HB algorithm, this simulation approach is possible only due to the computational efficiency of the CMC, which uses pre-computed scattering tables. On the other hand, HB allows the direct simulation of the steady-state behavior of circuits with long transient time. This work provides an accurate and efficient tool for the device early-stage design, which allows a computerbased performance evaluation in lieu of the extremely time-consuming and expensive iterations of prototyping and experimental large-signal characterization.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011