Matching Items (6)

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Heteroatoms Doped Nanocarbon for Supercapacitors

Description

This dissertation describes the synthesis and study of porous nanocarbon and further treatment by introducing nitrogen and oxygen groups on nanocarbon, which can be used as electrodes for energy storage

This dissertation describes the synthesis and study of porous nanocarbon and further treatment by introducing nitrogen and oxygen groups on nanocarbon, which can be used as electrodes for energy storage (supercapacitor). Electron microscopy is used to make nanoscale characterization. ZnO nanowires are used as the template of the porous nanocarbon, and nitrogen doping and oxidation treatment can help further increase the capacitive performance of the nanocarbon.

The first part of this thesis focuses on the synthesis of ZnO nanowires. Uniform ZnO nanowires with ~30 nm in width are produced at 1100℃ in a tube furnace with flowing gases (N2: 500 sccm; O2: 15 sccm). The temperature control is one of the most important parameters for making thin and ultra-long ZnO nanowires.

The second part of the thesis is about the synthesis of nanocarbons. Ultrapure ethanol is used as the carbon source to make carbonaceous deposition on ZnO nanowires. The thickness of the nanocarbons can be controlled by reaction temperature and reaction time. When the reaction time was controlled around 1h, the carbonaceous materials coating the ZnO nanowires become very thin. Then by flowing (1000 sccm) hydrogen at 750℃ through the reaction tube the ZnO nanowires are removed due to reduction and evaporation. Electrochemical evaluation of the produced nanocarbons shows that the nanocarbons possess very high specific surface area (>1400 m2/g) and a capacitance as high as 180 F/g at 10A/g in 6M KOH).

The third part of the thesis is the treatment of the as-synthesized nanocarbons to further increase capacitance. NH3 was used as the nitrogen source to react with nanocarbons at 700℃ to incorporate nitrogen group. Nitric acid (HNO3) is used as the oxidant to introduce oxygen groups. After proper nitrogen doping, the nitrogen doped nanocarbons can show high specific capacitance of 260 F/g at 1A/g in 6M KOH. After further oxidation treatment, the capacitance of the oxidized N-doped nanocarbons increased to 320 F/g at 1A/g in 6M KOH.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Material Processing for Edible Electronics

Description

A new type of electronics was envisioned, namely edible electronics. Edible electronics are made by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) certified edible materials which can be eaten and digested by

A new type of electronics was envisioned, namely edible electronics. Edible electronics are made by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) certified edible materials which can be eaten and digested by human body. Different from implantable electronics, test or treatment using edible electronics doesn’t require operations and perioperative complications.

This dissertation bridges the food industry, material sciences, device fabrication, and biomedical engineering by demonstrating edible supercapacitors and electronic components and devices such as pH sensor.

Edible supercapacitors were fabricated using food materials from grocery store. 5 of them were connected in series to power a snake camera. Tests result showed that the current generated by supercapacitor have the ability to kill bacteria. Next more food, processed food and non-toxic level electronic materials were investigated. A “preferred food kit” was created for component fabrication based on the investigation. Some edible electronic components, such as wires, resistor, inductor, etc., were developed and characterized utilizing the preferred food kit. These components make it possible to fabricate edible electronic/device in the future work. Some edible electronic components were integrated into an edible electronic system/device. Then edible pH sensor was introduced and fabricated. This edible pH sensor can be swallowed and test pH of gastric fluid. PH can be read in a phone within seconds after the pH sensor was swallowed. As a side project, an edible double network gel electrolyte was synthesized for the edible supercapacitor.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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High performance microbial fuel cells and supercapacitors using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology

Description

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the abundant biomass on the planet into electricity and potentially alleviate the emerging global warming and energy crisis. The current and power density of MFCs are low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. Since its debut in 2002, many studies have been performed by adopting a variety of new configurations and structures to improve the power density. The reported maximum areal and volumetric power densities range from 19 mW/m2 to 1.57 W/m2 and from 6.3 W/m3 to 392 W/m3, respectively, which are still low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. In this dissertation, the impact of scaling effect on the performance of MFCs are investigated, and it is found that by scaling down the characteristic length of MFCs, the surface area to volume ratio increases and the current and power density improves. As a result, a miniaturized MFC fabricated by Micro-Electro-Mechanical System(MEMS) technology with gold anode is presented in this dissertation, which demonstrate a high power density of 3300 W/m3. The performance of the MEMS MFC is further improved by adopting anodes with higher surface area to volume ratio, such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene based anodes, and the maximum power density is further improved to a record high power density of 11220 W/m3. A novel supercapacitor by regulating the respiration of the bacteria is also presented, and a high power density of 531.2 A/m2 (1,060,000 A/m3) and 197.5 W/m2 (395,000 W/m3), respectively, are marked, which are one to two orders of magnitude higher than any previously reported microbial electrochemical techniques.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Synthesis, characterization, and application of hollow carbon nanostructures

Description

This dissertation describes fundamental studies of hollow carbon nanostructures, which may be used as electrodes for practical energy storage applications such as batteries or supercapacitors. Electron microscopy is heavily utilized

This dissertation describes fundamental studies of hollow carbon nanostructures, which may be used as electrodes for practical energy storage applications such as batteries or supercapacitors. Electron microscopy is heavily utilized for the nanoscale characterization. To control the morphology of hollow carbon nanostructures, ZnO nanowires serve as sacrificial templates. The first part of this dissertation focuses on the optimization of synthesis parameters and the scale-up production of ZnO nanowires by vapor transport method. Uniform ZnO nanowires with 40 nm width can be produced by using 1100 °C reaction temperature and 20 sccm oxygen flow rate, which are the two most important parameters.

The use of ethanol as carbon source with or without water steam provides uniform carbonaceous deposition on ZnO nanowire templates. The amount of as-deposited carbonaceous material can be controlled by reaction temperature and reaction time. Due to the catalytic property of ZnO surface, the thicknesses of carbonaceous layers are typically in nanometers. Different methods to remove the ZnO templates are explored, of which hydrogen reduction at temperatures higher than 700 °C is most efficient. The ZnO templates can also be removed under ethanol environment, but the temperatures need to be higher than 850 °C for practical use.

Characterizations of hollow carbon nanofibers show that the hollow carbon nanostructures have a high specific surface area (>1100 m2/g) with the presence of mesopores (~3.5 nm). The initial data on energy storage as electrodes of electrochemical double layer capacitors show that high specific capacitance (> 220 F/g) can be obtained, which is related to the high surface area and unique porous hollow structure with a thin wall.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Carbon nanomaterials for energy storage, actuators and environmental applications

Description

Carbon nanomaterials have caught tremendous attention in the last few decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Tremendous effort has been made to develop new synthesis techniques for

Carbon nanomaterials have caught tremendous attention in the last few decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Tremendous effort has been made to develop new synthesis techniques for carbon nanomaterials and investigate their properties for different applications. In this work, carbon nanospheres (CNSs), carbon foams (CF), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were studied for various applications, including water treatment, energy storage, actuators, and sensors.

A facile spray pyrolysis synthesis technique was developed to synthesize individual CNSs with specific surface area (SSA) up to 1106 m2/g. The hollow CNSs showed adsorption of up to 300 mg rhodamine B dye per gram carbon, which is more than 15 times higher than that observed for conventional carbon black. They were also evaluated as adsorbents for removal of arsenate and selenate from water and displayed good binding to both species, outperforming commercial activated carbons for arsenate removal in pH > 8. When evaluated as supercapacitor electrode materials, specific capacitances of up to 112 F/g at a current density of 0.1 A/g were observed. When used as Li-ion battery anode materials, the CNSs achieved a discharge capacity of 270 mAh/g at a current density of 372 mA/g (1C), which is 4-fold higher than that of commercial graphite anode.

Carbon foams were synthesized using direct pyrolysis and had SSA up to 2340 m2/g. When used as supercapacitor electrode materials, a specific capacitance up to 280 F/g was achieved at current density of 0.1 A/g and remained as high as 207 F/g, even at a high current density of 10 A/g.

A printed walking robot was made from common plastic films and coatings of SWNTs. The solid-state thermal bimorph actuators were multifunctional energy transducers powered by heat, light, or electricity. The actuators were also investigated for photo/thermal detection. Electrochemical actuators based on MnO2 were also studied for potential underwater applications.

SWNTs were also used to fabricate printable electrodes for trace Cr(VI) detection, which displayed sensitivity up to 500 nA/ppb for Cr(VI). The limit of detection was shown to be as low as 5 ppb. A flow detection system based on CNT/printed electrodes was also demonstrated.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Engineering the electrode-electrolyte interface: from electrode architecture to Zn redox in ionic liquid electrolytes

Description

The electrode-electrolyte interface in electrochemical environments involves the understanding of complex processes relevant for all electrochemical applications. Some of these processes include electronic structure, charge storage, charge transfer, solvent dynamics

The electrode-electrolyte interface in electrochemical environments involves the understanding of complex processes relevant for all electrochemical applications. Some of these processes include electronic structure, charge storage, charge transfer, solvent dynamics and structure and surface adsorption. In order to engineer electrochemical systems, no matter the function, requires fundamental intuition of all the processes at the interface. The following work presents different systems in which the electrode-electrolyte interface is highly important. The first is a charge storage electrode utilizing percolation theory to develop an electrode architecture producing high capacities. This is followed by Zn deposition in an ionic liquid in which the deposition morphology is highly dependant on the charge transfer and surface adsorption at the interface. Electrode Architecture: A three-dimensional manganese oxide supercapacitor electrode architecture is synthesized by leveraging percolation theory to develop a hierarchically designed tri-continuous percolated network. The three percolated phases include a faradaically-active material, electrically conductive material and pore-former templated void space. The micropores create pathways for ionic conductivity, while the nanoscale electrically conducting phase provides both bulk conductivity and local electron transfer with the electrochemically active phase. Zn Electrodeposition: Zn redox in air and water stable N-ethyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [C2nmm][NTf2] is presented. Under various conditions, characterization of overpotential, kinetics and diffusion of Zn species and morphological evolution as a function of overpotential and Zn concentration are analyzed. The surface stress evolution during Zn deposition is examined where grain size and texturing play significant rolls in compressive stress generation. Morphological repeatability in the ILs led to a novel study of purity in ionic liquids where it is found that surface adsorption of residual amine and chloride from the organic synthesis affect growth characteristics. The drivers of this work are to understand the processes occurring at the electrode-electrolyte interface and with that knowledge, engineer systems yielding optimal performance. With this in mind, the design of a bulk supercapacitor electrode architecture with excellent composite specific capacitances, as well as develop conditions producing ideal Zn deposition morphologies was completed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011