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Influence of embedded HVDC transmission on AC network performance

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An embedded HVDC system is a dc link with at least two ends being physically connected within a single synchronous ac network. The thesis reviews previous works on embedded HVDC,

An embedded HVDC system is a dc link with at least two ends being physically connected within a single synchronous ac network. The thesis reviews previous works on embedded HVDC, proposes a dynamic embedded HVDC model by PSCAD program, and compares the transient stability performance among AC, DC and embedded HVDC. The test results indicate that by installing the embedded HVDC, AC network transient stability performance has been largely improved. Therefore the thesis designs a novel frequency control topology for embedded HVDC. According to the dynamic performance test results, when the embedded HVDC system equipped with a frequency control, the system transient stability will be improved further.

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  • 2013

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Potential induced degradation (PID) of pre-stressed photovoltaic modules: effect of glass surface conductivity disruption

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Potential induced degradation (PID) due to high system voltages is one of the major degradation mechanisms in photovoltaic (PV) modules, adversely affecting their performance due to the combined effects of

Potential induced degradation (PID) due to high system voltages is one of the major degradation mechanisms in photovoltaic (PV) modules, adversely affecting their performance due to the combined effects of the following factors: system voltage, superstrate/glass surface conductivity, encapsulant conductivity, silicon nitride anti-reflection coating property and interface property (glass/encapsulant; encapsulant/cell; encapsulant/backsheet). Previous studies carried out at ASU's Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory (ASU-PRL) showed that only negative voltage bias (positive grounded systems) adversely affects the performance of commonly available crystalline silicon modules. In previous studies, the surface conductivity of the glass surface was obtained using either conductive carbon layer extending from the glass surface to the frame or humidity inside an environmental chamber. This thesis investigates the influence of glass surface conductivity disruption on PV modules. In this study, conductive carbon was applied only on the module's glass surface without extending to the frame and the surface conductivity was disrupted (no carbon layer) at 2cm distance from the periphery of frame inner edges. This study was carried out under dry heat at two different temperatures (60 °C and 85 °C) and three different negative bias voltages (-300V, -400V, and -600V). To replicate closeness to the field conditions, half of the selected modules were pre-stressed under damp heat for 1000 hours (DH 1000) and the remaining half under 200 hours of thermal cycling (TC 200). When the surface continuity was disrupted by maintaining a 2 cm gap from the frame to the edge of the conductive layer, as demonstrated in this study, the degradation was found to be absent or negligibly small even after 35 hours of negative bias at elevated temperatures. This preliminary study appears to indicate that the modules could become immune to PID losses if the continuity of the glass surface conductivity is disrupted at the inside boundary of the frame. The surface conductivity of the glass, due to water layer formation in a humid condition, close to the frame could be disrupted just by applying a water repelling (hydrophobic) but high transmittance surface coating (such as Teflon) or modifying the frame/glass edges with water repellent properties.

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  • 2012

Source strength impact analysis on insulator flashover under contaminated conditions

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Transmission voltages worldwide are increasing to accommodate higher power transfer from power generators to load centers. Insulator dimensions cannot increase linearly with the voltage, as supporting structures become too tall

Transmission voltages worldwide are increasing to accommodate higher power transfer from power generators to load centers. Insulator dimensions cannot increase linearly with the voltage, as supporting structures become too tall and heavy. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the insulator design considering all operating conditions including dry, wet and contaminated. In order to design insulators suitably, a better understanding of the insulator flashover is required, as it is a serious issue regarding the safe operation of power systems. However, it is not always feasible to conduct field and laboratory studies due to limited time and money.

The desire to accurately predict the performance of insulator flashovers requires mathematical models. Dynamic models are more appropriate than static models in terms of the instantaneous variation of arc parameters. In this dissertation, a dynamic model including conditions for arc dynamics, arc re-ignition and arc motion with AC supply is first developed.

For an AC power source, it is important to consider the equivalent shunt capacitance in addition to the short circuit current when evaluating pollution test results. By including the power source in dynamic models, the effects of source parameters on the leakage current waveform, the voltage drop and the flashover voltage were systematically investigated. It has been observed that for the same insulator under the same pollution level, there is a large difference among these flashover performances in high voltage laboratories and real power systems. Source strength is believed to be responsible for this discrepancy. Investigations of test source strength were conducted in this work in order to study its impact on different types of insulators with a variety of geometries.

Traditional deterministic models which have been developed so far can only predict whether an insulator would flashover or withstand. In practice, insulator flashover is a statistical process, given that both pollution severity and flashover voltage are probabilistic variables. A probability approach to predict the insulator flashover likelihood is presented based on the newly developed dynamic model.

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  • 2016

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Potential induced degradation (PID) study of fresh and accelerated stress tested photovoltaic modules

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Infant mortality rate of field deployed photovoltaic (PV) modules may be expected to be higher than that estimated by standard qualification tests. The reason for increased failure rates may be

Infant mortality rate of field deployed photovoltaic (PV) modules may be expected to be higher than that estimated by standard qualification tests. The reason for increased failure rates may be attributed to the high system voltages. High voltages (HV) in grid connected modules induce additional stress factors that cause new degradation mechanisms. These new degradation mechanisms are not recognized by qualification stress tests. To study and model the effect of high system voltages, recently, potential induced degradation (PID) test method has been introduced. Using PID studies, it has been reported that high voltage failure rates are essentially due to increased leakage currents from active semiconducting layer to the grounded module frame, through encapsulant and/or glass. This project involved designing and commissioning of a new PID test bed at Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory (PRL) of Arizona State University (ASU) to study the mechanisms of HV induced degradation. In this study, PID stress tests have been performed on accelerated stress modules, in addition to fresh modules of crystalline silicon technology. Accelerated stressing includes thermal cycling (TC200 cycles) and damp heat (1000 hours) tests as per IEC 61215. Failure rates in field deployed modules that are exposed to long term weather conditions are better simulated by conducting HV tests on prior accelerated stress tested modules. The PID testing was performed in 3 phases on a set of 5 mono crystalline silicon modules. In Phase-I of PID test, a positive bias of +600 V was applied, between shorted leads and frame of each module, on 3 modules with conducting carbon coating on glass superstrate. The 3 module set was comprised of: 1 fresh control, TC200 and DH1000. The PID test was conducted in an environmental chamber by stressing the modules at 85°C, for 35 hours with an intermittent evaluation for Arrhenius effects. In the Phase-II, a negative bias of -600 V was applied on a set of 3 modules in the chamber as defined above. The 3 module set in phase-II was comprised of: control module from phase-I, TC200 and DH1000. In the Phase-III, the same set of 3 modules which were used in the phase-II again subjected to +600 V bias to observe the recovery of lost power during the Phase-II. Electrical performance, infrared (IR) and electroluminescence (EL) were done prior and post PID testing. It was observed that high voltage positive bias in the first phase resulted in little
o power loss, high voltage negative bias in the second phase caused significant power loss and the high voltage positive bias in the third phase resulted in major recovery of lost power.

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Date Created
  • 2011