Matching Items (4)

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Ion transport in surface modified cylindrical silicon-on-insulator nanopore with field effect modulation

Description

Solid-state nanopore research, used in the field of biomolecule detection and separation, has developed rapidly during the last decade. An electric field generated from the nanopore membrane to the aperture

Solid-state nanopore research, used in the field of biomolecule detection and separation, has developed rapidly during the last decade. An electric field generated from the nanopore membrane to the aperture surface by a bias voltage can be used to electrostatically control the transport of charges. This results in ionic current rectification that can be used for applications such as biomolecule filtration and DNA sequencing.

In this doctoral research, a voltage bias was applied on the device silicon layer of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) cylindrical single nanopore to analyze how the perpendicular gate electrical field affected the ionic current through the pore. The nanopore was fabricated using electron beam lithography (EBL) and reactive ion etching (RIE) which are standard CMOS processes and can be integrated into any electronic circuit with massive production. The long cylindrical pore shape provides a larger surface area inside the aperture compared to other nanopores whose surface charge is of vital importance to ion transport.

Ionic transport through the nanopore was characterized by measuring the ionic conductance of the nanopore in aqueous hydrochloric acid and potassium chloride solutions under field effect modulation. The nanopores were separately coated with negatively charged thermal silicon oxide and positively charged aluminum oxide using Atomic Layer Deposition. Both layers worked as electrical insulation layers preventing leakage current once the substrate bias was applied. Different surface charges also provided different counterion-coion configurations. The transverse conductance of the nanopore at low electrolyte concentrations (<10-4 M) changed with voltage bias when the Debye length was comparable to the dimensions of the nanopore.

Ionic transport through nanopores coated with polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes were also investigated in ionic solutions with various pH values using Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The pH sensitive poly[2–(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) PE brushes were integrated on the inner walls as well as the surface of the thermal oxidized SOI cylindrical nanopore using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). An equivalent circuit model was developed to extract conductive and resistive values of the nanopore in ionic solutions. The ionic conductance of PE coated nanopore was effectively rectified by varying the pH and gate bias.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Electron transport properties in one-dimensional III-V nanowire transistors

Description

Semiconductor nanowires are featured by their unique one-dimensional structure which makes them promising for small scale electronic and photonic device applications. Among them, III-V material nanowires are particularly outstanding due

Semiconductor nanowires are featured by their unique one-dimensional structure which makes them promising for small scale electronic and photonic device applications. Among them, III-V material nanowires are particularly outstanding due to their good electronic properties. In bulk, these materials reveal electron mobility much higher than conventional silicon based devices, for example at room temperature, InAs field effect transistor (FET) has electron mobility of 40,000 cm2/Vs more than 10 times of Si FET. This makes such materials promising for high speed nanowire FETs. With small bandgap, such as 0.354 eV for InAs and 1.52 eV for GaAs, it does not need high voltage to turn on such devices which leads to low power consumption devices. Another feature of direct bandgap allows their applications of optoelectronic devices such as avalanche photodiodes. However, there are challenges to face up. Due to their large surface to volume ratio, nanowire devices typically are strongly affected by the surface states. Although nanowires can be grown into single crystal structure, people observe crystal defects along the wires which can significantly affect the performance of devices. In this work, FETs made of two types of III-V nanowire, GaAs and InAs, are demonstrated. These nanowires are grown by catalyst-free MOCVD growth method. Vertically nanowires are transferred onto patterned substrates for coordinate calibration. Then electrodes are defined by e-beam lithography followed by deposition of contact metals. Prior to metal deposition, however, the substrates are dipped in ammonium hydroxide solution to remove native oxide layer formed on nanowire surface. Current vs. source-drain voltage with different gate bias are measured at room temperature. GaAs nanowire FETs show photo response while InAs nanowire FETs do not show that. Surface passivation is performed on GaAs FETs by using ammonium surfide solution. The best results on current increase is observed with around 20-30 minutes chemical treatment time. Gate response measurements are performed at room temperature, from which field effect mobility as high as 1490 cm2/Vs is extracted for InAs FETs. One major contributor for this is stacking faults defect existing along nanowires. For InAs FETs, thermal excitations observed from temperature dependent results which leads us to investigate potential barriers.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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A new class of solid state, single-ion conductors (H+ and Li+): silicon-based plastic crystals

Description

Plastic crystals as a class are of much interest in applications as solid state electrolytes for electrochemical energy conversion devices. A subclass exhibit very high protonic conductivity and its members

Plastic crystals as a class are of much interest in applications as solid state electrolytes for electrochemical energy conversion devices. A subclass exhibit very high protonic conductivity and its members have been investigated as possible fuel cell electrolytes, as first demonstrated by Haile’s group in 2001 with CsHSO4. To date these have been inorganic compounds with tetrahedral oxyanions carrying one or more protons, charge-balanced by large alkali cations. Above the rotator phase transition, the HXO4- anions re-orient at a rate dependent on temperature while the centers of mass remain ordered. The transition is accompanied by a conductivity "jump" (as much as four orders of magnitude, to ~ 10 mScm-1 in the now-classic case of CsHSO4) due to mobile protons. These superprotonic plastic crystals bring a “true solid state” alternative to polymer electrolytes, operating at mild temperatures (150-200ºC) without the requirement of humidification. This work describes a new class of solid acids based on silicon, which are of general interest. Its members have extraordinary conductivities, as high as 21.5 mS/cm at room temperature, orders of magnitude above any previous reported case. Three fuel cells are demonstrated, delivering current densities as high as 225 mA/cm2 at short-circuit at 130ºC in one example and 640 mA/cm2 at 87ºC in another. The new compounds are insoluble in water, and their remarkably high conductivities over a wide temperature range allow for lower temperature operations, thus reducing the risk of hydrogen sulfide formation and dehydration reactions. Additionally, plastic crystals have highly advantageous properties that permit their application as solid state electrolytes in lithium batteries. So far only doped materials have been presented. This work presents for the first time non-doped plastic crystals in which the lithium ions are integral part of the structure, as a solid state electrolyte. The new electrolytes have conductivities of 3 to 10 mS/cm at room temperature, and in one example maintain a highly conductive state at temperatures as low as -30oC. The malleability of the materials and single ion conducting properties make these materials highly interesting candidates as a novel class of solid state lithium conductors.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Nanoporous transparent conducting oxides and new solid acid catalysts

Description

New sol-gel routes were developed to fabricate transparent conducting oxide coatings for energy applications. Sol-gel synthesis was chosen because the metal oxide products have high surface area and porosity.

New sol-gel routes were developed to fabricate transparent conducting oxide coatings for energy applications. Sol-gel synthesis was chosen because the metal oxide products have high surface area and porosity. Titanium sol-gel chemistry was the main focus of the studies, and the synthesis of macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide was also explored. The surface chemistry and band characteristics of anatase TiO2 show promise for solar energy purposes as photoelectrodes in DSSCs and as photocatalysts to degrade organic dyes and to split water. Modifying the band structure by increasing the conduction band edge energy is specifically of interest for reducing protons in water. To this end, a new sol-gel method was developed for incorporating Zr-dopant in nanoporous anatase TiO2. The products follow Vegard’s law up to 20 atom%, exhibiting surface area of 79 m2/g and pore volume of 0.20 cm3/g with average pore diameter of 10.3 nm; the conduction band edge energy increased by 0.22 eV and the band gap increased by 0.1 eV.

In pursuit of a greener sol-gel route for TiO2 materials, a solution of TiOSO4 in water was explored. Success in obtaining a gel came by utilizing hydrogen peroxide as a ligand that suppressed precipitation reactions. Through modifying this sol-gel chemistry to obtain a solid acid, the new material hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H1-xTi2(PO4)3-x(SO4)x, (0 < x < 0.5) was synthesized and characterized for the first time. From the reported synthetic route, this compound took the form of macroscopic agglomerates of nanoporous aggregates of nanoparticles around 20 nm and the product calcined at 600 °C exhibited surface area of 78 m2/g, pore volume of 0.22 cm3/g and an average pore width of 11 nm. This solid acid exhibits complete selectivity for the non-oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde and hydrogen gas, with >50% conversion at 300 °C.

Finally, hierarchically meso-macroporous antimony doped tin oxide was synthesized with regular macropore size around 210 nm, determined by statistical dye trajectory tracking, and also with larger pores up to micrometers in size. The structure consisted of nanoparticles around 4 nm in size, with textural mesopores around 20 nm in diameter.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016