Matching Items (7)

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Fabrication, Modeling and Control of a Spherical Tail-Sitter UAV

Description

In the past decade, real-world applications of Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have increased significantly. There has been growing interest in one of these types of

In the past decade, real-world applications of Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have increased significantly. There has been growing interest in one of these types of UAVs, called a tail-sitter UAV, due to its VTOL and cruise capabilities. This thesis presents the fabrication of a spherical tail-sitter UAV and derives a nonlinear mathematical model of its dynamics. The singularity in the attitude kinematics of the vehicle is avoided using Modified Rodrigues Parameters (MRP). The model parameters of the fabricated vehicle are calculated using the bifilar pendulum method, a motor stand, and ANSYS simulation software. Then the trim conditions at hover are calculated for the nonlinear model, and the rotational dynamics of the model are linearized around the equilibrium state with the calculated trim conditions. Robust controllers are designed to stabilize the UAV in hover using the H2 control and H-infinity control methodologies. For H2 control design, Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control is used. For the H infinity control design, Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) with frequency-dependent weights are derived and solved using the MATLAB toolbox YALMIP. In addition, a nonlinear controller is designed using the Sum-of-Squares (SOS) method to implement large-angle maneuvers for transitions between horizontal flight and vertical flight. Finally, the linear controllers are implemented in the fabricated spherical tail-sitter UAV for experimental validation. The performance trade-offs and the response of the UAV with the linear and nonlinear controllers are discussed in detail.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Nonlinear phase based control to generate and assist oscillatory motion with wearable robotics

Description

Wearable robotics is a growing sector in the robotics industry, they can increase the productivity of workers and soldiers and can restore some of the lost function to people with

Wearable robotics is a growing sector in the robotics industry, they can increase the productivity of workers and soldiers and can restore some of the lost function to people with disabilities. Wearable robots should be comfortable, easy to use, and intuitive. Robust control methods are needed for wearable robots that assist periodic motion.

This dissertation studies a phase based oscillator constructed with a second order dynamic system and a forcing function based on the phase angle of the system. This produces a bounded control signal that can alter the damping and stiffens properties of the dynamic system. It is shown analytically and experimentally that it is stable and robust. It can handle perturbations remarkably well. The forcing function uses the states of the system to produces stable oscillations. Also, this work shows the use of the phase based oscillator in wearable robots to assist periodic human motion focusing on assisting the hip motion. One of the main problems to assist periodic motion properly is to determine the frequency of the signal. The phase oscillator eliminates this problem because the signal always has the correct frequency. The input requires the position and velocity of the system. Additionally, the simplicity of the controller allows for simple implementation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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A Generalized H-Infinity Mixed Sensitivity Convex Approach to Multivariable Control Design Subject to Simultaneous Output and Input Loop-Breaking Specifications

Description

In this dissertation, we present a H-infinity based multivariable control design methodology that can be used to systematically address design specifications at distinct feedback loop-breaking points. It is well understood

In this dissertation, we present a H-infinity based multivariable control design methodology that can be used to systematically address design specifications at distinct feedback loop-breaking points. It is well understood that for multivariable systems, obtaining good/acceptable closed loop properties at one loop-breaking point does not mean the same at another. This is especially true for multivariable systems that are ill-conditioned (having high condition number and/or relative gain array and/or scaled condition number). We analyze the tradeoffs involved in shaping closed loop properties at these distinct loop-breaking points and illustrate through examples the existence of pareto optimal points associated with them. Further, we study the limitations and tradeoffs associated with shaping the properties in the presence of right half plane poles/zeros, limited available bandwidth and peak time-domain constraints. To address the above tradeoffs, we present a methodology for designing multiobjective constrained H-infinity based controllers, called Generalized Mixed Sensitivity (GMS), to effectively and efficiently shape properties at distinct loop-breaking points. The methodology accommodates a broad class of convex frequency- and time-domain design specifications. This is accomplished by exploiting the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera parameterization that transforms the nonlinear problem in the controller to an affine one in the Youla et al. parameter. Basis parameters that result in efficient approximation (using lesser number of basis terms) of the infinite-dimensional parameter are studied. Three state-of-the-art subgradient-based non-differentiable constrained convex optimization solvers, namely Analytic Center Cutting Plane Method (ACCPM), Kelley's CPM and SolvOpt are implemented and compared.

The above approach is used to design controllers for and tradeoff between several control properties of longitudinal dynamics of 3-DOF Hypersonic vehicle model -– one that is unstable, non-minimum phase and possesses significant coupling between channels. A hierarchical inner-outer loop control architecture is used to exploit additional feedback information in order to significantly help in making reasonable tradeoffs between properties at distinct loop-breaking points. The methodology is shown to generate very good designs –- designs that would be difficult to obtain without our presented methodology. Critical control tradeoffs associated are studied and compared with other design methods (e.g., classically motivated, standard mixed sensitivity) to further illustrate its power and transparency.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Robust corrective topology control for system reliability and renewable integration

Description

Corrective transmission topology control schemes are an essential part of grid operations and are used to improve the reliability of the grid as well as the operational efficiency. However, topology

Corrective transmission topology control schemes are an essential part of grid operations and are used to improve the reliability of the grid as well as the operational efficiency. However, topology control schemes are frequently established based on the operator's past knowledge of the system as well as other ad-hoc methods. This research presents robust corrective topology control, which is a transmission switching methodology used for system reliability as well as to facilitate renewable integration.

This research presents three topology control (corrective transmission switching) methodologies along with the detailed formulation of robust corrective switching. The robust model can be solved off-line to suggest switching actions that can be used in a dynamic security assessment tool in real-time. The proposed robust topology control algorithm can also generate multiple corrective switching actions for a particular contingency. The solution obtained from the robust topology control algorithm is guaranteed to be feasible for the entire uncertainty set, i.e., a range of system operating states.

Furthermore, this research extends the benefits of robust corrective topology control to renewable resource integration. In recent years, the penetration of renewable resources in electrical power systems has increased. These renewable resources add more complexities to power system operations, due to their intermittent nature. This research presents robust corrective topology control as a congestion management tool to manage power flows and the associated renewable uncertainty. The proposed day-ahead method determines the maximum uncertainty in renewable resources in terms of do-not-exceed limits combined with corrective topology control. The results obtained from the topology control algorithm are tested for system stability and AC feasibility.

The scalability of do-not-exceed limits problem, from a smaller test case to a realistic test case, is also addressed in this research. The do-not-exceed limit problem is simplified by proposing a zonal do-not-exceed limit formulation over a detailed nodal do-not-exceed limit formulation. The simulation results show that the zonal approach is capable of addressing scalability of the do-not-exceed limit problem for a realistic test case.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Discrete-time PID Controller Tuning Using Frequency Loop-Shaping

Description

Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers are a versatile category of controllers that are commonly used in the industry as control systems due to the ease of their implementation and low cost. One

Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers are a versatile category of controllers that are commonly used in the industry as control systems due to the ease of their implementation and low cost. One problem that continues to intrigue control designers is the matter of finding a good combination of the three parameters - P, I and D of these controllers so that system stability and optimum performance is achieved. Also, a certain amount of robustness to the process is expected from the PID controllers. In the past, many different methods for tuning PID parameters have been developed. Some notable techniques are the Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, Astrom methods etc. For all these techniques, a simple limitation remained with the fact that for a particular system, there can be only one set of tuned parameters; i.e. there are no degrees of freedom involved to readjust the parameters for a given system to achieve, for instance, higher bandwidth. Another limitation in most cases is where a controller is designed in continuous time then converted into discrete-time for computer implementation. The drawback of this method is that some robustness due to phase and gain margin is lost in the process. In this work a method of tuning PID controllers using a loop-shaping approach has been developed where the bandwidth of the system can be chosen within an acceptable range. The loop-shaping is done against a Glover-McFarlane type ℋ∞ controller which is widely accepted as a robust control design method. The numerical computations are carried out entirely in discrete-time so there is no loss of robustness due to conversion and approximations near Nyquist frequencies. Some extra degrees of freedom owing to choice of bandwidth and capability of choosing loop-shapes are also involved and are discussed in detail. Finally, comparisons of this method against existing techniques for tuning PID controllers both in continuous and in discrete-time are shown. The results tell us that our design performs well for loop-shapes that are achievable through a PID controller.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Modeling and control for microgrids

Description

Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for

Traditional approaches to modeling microgrids include the behavior of each inverter operating in a particular network configuration and at a particular operating point. Such models quickly become computationally intensive for large systems. Similarly, traditional approaches to control do not use advanced methodologies and suffer from poor performance and limited operating range. In this document a linear model is derived for an inverter connected to the Thevenin equivalent of a microgrid. This model is then compared to a nonlinear simulation model and analyzed using the open and closed loop systems in both the time and frequency domains. The modeling error is quantified with emphasis on its use for controller design purposes. Control design examples are given using a Glover McFarlane controller, gain sched- uled Glover McFarlane controller, and bumpless transfer controller which are compared to the standard droop control approach. These examples serve as a guide to illustrate the use of multi-variable modeling techniques in the context of robust controller design and show that gain scheduled MIMO control techniques can extend the operating range of a microgrid. A hardware implementation is used to compare constant gain droop controllers with Glover McFarlane controllers and shows a clear advantage of the Glover McFarlane approach.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Robust Control of Wide Bandgap Power Electronics Device Enabled Smart Grid

Description

In recent years, wide bandgap (WBG) devices enable power converters with higher power density and higher efficiency. On the other hand, smart grid technologies are getting mature due to new

In recent years, wide bandgap (WBG) devices enable power converters with higher power density and higher efficiency. On the other hand, smart grid technologies are getting mature due to new battery technology and computer technology. In the near future, the two technologies will form the next generation of smart grid enabled by WBG devices. This dissertation deals with two applications: silicon carbide (SiC) device used for medium voltage level interface (7.2 kV to 240 V) and gallium nitride (GaN) device used for low voltage level interface (240 V/120 V). A 20 kW solid state transformer (SST) is designed with 6 kHz switching frequency SiC rectifier. Then three robust control design methods are proposed for each of its smart grid operation modes. In grid connected mode, a new LCL filter design method is proposed considering grid voltage THD, grid current THD and current regulation loop robust stability with respect to the grid impedance change. In grid islanded mode, µ synthesis method combined with variable structure control is used to design a robust controller for grid voltage regulation. For grid emergency mode, multivariable controller designed using H infinity synthesis method is proposed for accurate power sharing. Controller-hardware-in-the-loop (CHIL) testbed considering 7-SST system is setup with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The real TMS320F28335 DSP and Spartan 6 FPGA control board is used to interface a switching model SST in RTDS. And the proposed control methods are tested. For low voltage level application, a 3.3 kW smart grid hardware is built with 3 GaN inverters. The inverters are designed with the GaN device characterized using the proposed multi-function double pulse tester. The inverter is controlled by onboard TMS320F28379D dual core DSP with 200 kHz sampling frequency. Each inverter is tested to process 2.2 kW power with overall efficiency of 96.5 % at room temperature. The smart grid monitor system and fault interrupt devices (FID) based on Arduino Mega2560 are built and tested. The smart grid cooperates with GaN inverters through CAN bus communication. At last, the three GaN inverters smart grid achieved the function of grid connected to islanded mode smooth transition

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017