Matching Items (6)

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State Estimation for Enhanced Monitoring, Reliability, Restoration and Control of Smart Distribution Systems

Description

The Smart Grid initiative describes the collaborative effort to modernize the U.S. electric power infrastructure. Modernization efforts incorporate digital data and information technology to effectuate control, enhance reliability, encourage small

The Smart Grid initiative describes the collaborative effort to modernize the U.S. electric power infrastructure. Modernization efforts incorporate digital data and information technology to effectuate control, enhance reliability, encourage small customer sited distributed generation (DG), and better utilize assets. The Smart Grid environment is envisioned to include distributed generation, flexible and controllable loads, bidirectional communications using smart meters and other technologies. Sensory technology may be utilized as a tool that enhances operation including operation of the distribution system. Addressing this point, a distribution system state estimation algorithm is developed in this thesis. The state estimation algorithm developed here utilizes distribution system modeling techniques to calculate a vector of state variables for a given set of measurements. Measurements include active and reactive power flows, voltage and current magnitudes, phasor voltages with magnitude and angle information. The state estimator is envisioned as a tool embedded in distribution substation computers as part of distribution management systems (DMS); the estimator acts as a supervisory layer for a number of applications including automation (DA), energy management, control and switching. The distribution system state estimator is developed in full three-phase detail, and the effect of mutual coupling and single-phase laterals and loads on the solution is calculated. The network model comprises a full three-phase admittance matrix and a subset of equations that relates measurements to system states. Network equations and variables are represented in rectangular form. Thus a linear calculation procedure may be employed. When initialized to the vector of measured quantities and approximated non-metered load values, the calculation procedure is non-iterative. This dissertation presents background information used to develop the state estimation algorithm, considerations for distribution system modeling, and the formulation of the state estimator. Estimator performance for various power system test beds is investigated. Sample applications of the estimator to Smart Grid systems are presented. Applications include monitoring, enabling demand response (DR), voltage unbalance mitigation, and enhancing voltage control. Illustrations of these applications are shown. Also, examples of enhanced reliability and restoration using a sensory based automation infrastructure are shown.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Enhanced power system operational performance with anticipatory control under increased penetration of wind energy

Description

As the world embraces a sustainable energy future, alternative energy resources, such as wind power, are increasingly being seen as an integral part of the future electric energy grid. Ultimately,

As the world embraces a sustainable energy future, alternative energy resources, such as wind power, are increasingly being seen as an integral part of the future electric energy grid. Ultimately, integrating such a dynamic and variable mix of generation requires a better understanding of renewable generation output, in addition to power grid systems that improve power system operational performance in the presence of anticipated events such as wind power ramps. Because of the stochastic, uncontrollable nature of renewable resources, a thorough and accurate characterization of wind activity is necessary to maintain grid stability and reliability. Wind power ramps from an existing wind farm are studied to characterize persistence forecasting errors using extreme value analysis techniques. In addition, a novel metric that quantifies the amount of non-stationarity in time series wind power data was proposed and used in a real-time algorithm to provide a rigorous method that adaptively determines training data for forecasts. Lastly, large swings in generation or load can cause system frequency and tie-line flows to deviate from nominal, so an anticipatory MPC-based secondary control scheme was designed and integrated into an automatic generation control loop to improve the ability of an interconnection to respond to anticipated large events and fluctuations in the power system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Improved coherency-based dynamic equivalents

Description

Due to restructuring and open access to the transmission system, modern electric power systems are being operated closer to their operational limits. Additionally, the secure operational limits of modern power

Due to restructuring and open access to the transmission system, modern electric power systems are being operated closer to their operational limits. Additionally, the secure operational limits of modern power systems have become increasingly difficult to evaluate as the scale of the network and the number of transactions between utilities increase. To account for these challenges associated with the rapid expansion of electric power systems, dynamic equivalents have been widely applied for the purpose of reducing the computational effort of simulation-based transient security assessment. Dynamic equivalents are commonly developed using a coherency-based approach in which a retained area and an external area are first demarcated. Then the coherent generators in the external area are aggregated and replaced by equivalenced models, followed by network reduction and load aggregation. In this process, an improperly defined retained area can result in detrimental impacts on the effectiveness of the equivalents in preserving the dynamic characteristics of the original unreduced system. In this dissertation, a comprehensive approach has been proposed to determine an appropriate retained area boundary by including the critical generators in the external area that are tightly coupled with the initial retained area. Further-more, a systematic approach has also been investigated to efficiently predict the variation in generator slow coherency behavior when the system operating condition is subject to change. Based on this determination, the critical generators in the external area that are tightly coherent with the generators in the initial retained area are retained, resulting in a new retained area boundary. Finally, a novel hybrid dynamic equivalent, consisting of both a coherency-based equivalent and an artificial neural network (ANN)-based equivalent, has been proposed and analyzed. The ANN-based equivalent complements the coherency-based equivalent at all the retained area boundary buses, and it is designed to compensate for the discrepancy between the full system and the conventional coherency-based equivalent. The approaches developed have been validated on a large portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system and on a test case including a significant portion of the eastern interconnection.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Improved grid resiliency through interactive system control

Description

With growing complexity of power grid interconnections, power systems may become increasingly vulnerable to low frequency oscillations (especially inter-area oscillations) and dependent on stabilizing controls using either local signals or

With growing complexity of power grid interconnections, power systems may become increasingly vulnerable to low frequency oscillations (especially inter-area oscillations) and dependent on stabilizing controls using either local signals or wide-area signals to provide adequate damping. In recent years, the ability and potential to use wide-area signals for control purposes has increased since a significant investment has been made in the U. S. in deploying synchrophasor measurement technology. Fast and reliable communication systems are essential to enable the use of wide-area signals in controls. If wide-area signals find increased applicability in controls the security and reliability of power systems could be vulnerable to disruptions in communication systems. Even though numerous modern techniques have been developed to lower the probability of communication errors, communication networks cannot be designed to be always reliable. Given this background the motivation of this work is to build resiliency in the power grid controls to respond to failures in the communication network when wide-area control signals are used. In addition, this work also deals with the delay uncertainty associated with the wide-area signal transmission. In order to counteract the negative impact of communication failures on control effectiveness, two approaches are proposed and both approaches are motivated by considering the use of a robustly designed supplementary damping control (SDC) framework associated with a static VAr compensator (SVC). When there is no communication failure, the designed controller guarantees enhanced improvement in damping performance. When the wide-area signal in use is lost due to a communication failure, however, the resilient control provides the required damping of the inter-area oscillations by either utilizing another wide-area measurement through a healthy communication route or by simply utilizing an appropriate local control signal. Simulation results prove that with either of the proposed controls included, the system is stabilized regardless of communication failures, and thereby the reliability and sustainability of power systems is improved. The proposed approaches can be extended without loss of generality to the design of any resilient controller in cyber-physical engineering systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Trajectory sensitivity based power system dynamic security assessment

Description

Contemporary methods for dynamic security assessment (DSA) mainly re-ly on time domain simulations to explore the influence of large disturbances in a power system. These methods are computationally intensive especially

Contemporary methods for dynamic security assessment (DSA) mainly re-ly on time domain simulations to explore the influence of large disturbances in a power system. These methods are computationally intensive especially when the system operating point changes continually. The trajectory sensitivity method, when implemented and utilized as a complement to the existing DSA time domain simulation routine, can provide valuable insights into the system variation in re-sponse to system parameter changes. The implementation of the trajectory sensitivity analysis is based on an open source power system analysis toolbox called PSAT. Eight categories of sen-sitivity elements have been implemented and tested. The accuracy assessment of the implementation demonstrates the validity of both the theory and the imple-mentation. The computational burden introduced by the additional sensitivity equa-tions is relieved by two innovative methods: one is by employing a cluster to per-form the sensitivity calculations in parallel; the other one is by developing a mod-ified very dishonest Newton method in conjunction with the latest sparse matrix processing technology. The relation between the linear approximation accuracy and the perturba-tion size is also studied numerically. It is found that there is a fixed connection between the linear approximation accuracy and the perturbation size. Therefore this finding can serve as a general application guide to evaluate the accuracy of the linear approximation. The applicability of the trajectory sensitivity approach to a large realistic network has been demonstrated in detail. This research work applies the trajectory sensitivity analysis method to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Several typical power system dynamic security problems, in-cluding the transient angle stability problem, the voltage stability problem consid-ering load modeling uncertainty and the transient stability constrained interface real power flow limit calculation, have been addressed. Besides, a method based on the trajectory sensitivity approach and the model predictive control has been developed for determination of under frequency load shedding strategy for real time stability assessment. These applications have shown the great efficacy and accuracy of the trajectory sensitivity method in handling these traditional power system stability problems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Load sensitivity studies and contingency analysis in power systems

Description

The past decades have seen a significant shift in the expectations and requirements re-lated to power system analysis tools. Investigations into major power grid disturbances have suggested the need for

The past decades have seen a significant shift in the expectations and requirements re-lated to power system analysis tools. Investigations into major power grid disturbances have suggested the need for more comprehensive assessment methods. Accordingly, sig-nificant research in recent years has focused on the development of better power system models and efficient techniques for analyzing power system operability. The work done in this report focusses on two such topics

1. Analysis of load model parameter uncertainty and sensitivity based pa-rameter estimation for power system studies

2. A systematic approach to n-1-1 analysis for power system security as-sessment

To assess the effect of load model parameter uncertainty, a trajectory sensitivity based approach is proposed in this work. Trajectory sensitivity analysis provides a sys-tematic approach to study the impact of parameter uncertainty on power system re-sponse to disturbances. Furthermore, the non-smooth nature of the composite load model presents some additional challenges to sensitivity analysis in a realistic power system. Accordingly, the impact of the non-smooth nature of load models on the sensitivity analysis is addressed in this work. The study was performed using the Western Electrici-ty Coordinating Council (WECC) system model. To address the issue of load model pa-rameter estimation, a sensitivity based load model parameter estimation technique is presented in this work. A detailed discussion on utilizing sensitivities to improve the ac-curacy and efficiency of the parameter estimation process is also presented in this work.

Cascading outages can have a catastrophic impact on power systems. As such, the NERC transmission planning (TPL) standards requires utilities to plan for n¬-1-1 out-ages. However, such analyses can be computationally burdensome for any realistic pow-er system owing to the staggering number of possible n-1-1 contingencies. To address this problem, the report proposes a systematic approach to analyze n-1-1 contingencies in a computationally tractable manner for power system security assessment. The pro-posed approach addresses both static and dynamic security assessment. The proposed methods have been tested on the WECC system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016