This investigation focuses on the development of uncertainty modeling methods applicable to both the structural and thermal models of heated structures as part of an effort to enable the design under uncertainty of hypersonic vehicles. The maximum entropy-based nonparametric stochastic modeling approach is used within the context of coupled structural-thermal Reduced Order Models (ROMs). Not only does this strategy allow for a computationally efficient generation of samples of the structural and thermal responses but the maximum entropy approach allows to introduce both aleatoric and some epistemic uncertainty into the system.
While the nonparametric approach has a long history of applications to structural models, the present investigation was the first one to consider it for the heat conduction problem. In this process, it was recognized that the nonparametric approach had to be modified to maintain the localization of the temperature near the heat source, which was successfully achieved.
The introduction of uncertainty in coupled structural-thermal ROMs of heated structures was addressed next. It was first recognized that the structural stiffness coefficients (linear, quadratic, and cubic) and the parameters quantifying the effects of the temperature distribution on the structural response can be regrouped into a matrix that is symmetric and positive definite. The nonparametric approach was then applied to this matrix allowing the assessment of the effects of uncertainty on the resulting temperature distributions and structural response.
The third part of this document focuses on introducing uncertainty using the Maximum Entropy Method at the level of finite element by randomizing elemental matrices, for instance, elemental stiffness, mass and conductance matrices. This approach brings some epistemic uncertainty not present in the parametric approach (e.g., by randomizing the elasticity tensor) while retaining more local character than the operation in ROM level.
The last part of this document focuses on the development of “reduced ROMs” (RROMs) which are reduced order models with small bases constructed in a data-driven process from a “full” ROM with a much larger basis. The development of the RROM methodology is motivated by the desire to optimally reduce the computational cost especially in multi-physics situations where a lack of prior understanding/knowledge of the solution typically leads to the selection of ROM bases that are excessively broad to ensure the necessary accuracy in representing the response. It is additionally emphasized that the ROM reduction process can be carried out adaptively, i.e., differently over different ranges of loading conditions.