Matching Items (8)

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Constrained energy optimization in heterogeneous platforms using generalized scaling models

Description

Mobile platforms are becoming highly heterogeneous by combining a powerful multiprocessor system-on-chip (MpSoC) with numerous resources including display, memory, power management IC (PMIC), battery and wireless modems into a compact

Mobile platforms are becoming highly heterogeneous by combining a powerful multiprocessor system-on-chip (MpSoC) with numerous resources including display, memory, power management IC (PMIC), battery and wireless modems into a compact package. Furthermore, the MpSoC itself is a heterogeneous resource that integrates many processing elements such as CPU cores, GPU, video, image, and audio processors. As a result, optimization approaches targeting mobile computing needs to consider the platform at various levels of granularity.

Platform energy consumption and responsiveness are two major considerations for mobile systems since they determine the battery life and user satisfaction, respectively. In this work, the models for power consumption, response time, and energy consumption of heterogeneous mobile platforms are presented. Then, these models are used to optimize the energy consumption of baseline platforms under power, response time, and temperature constraints with and without introducing new resources. It is shown, the optimal design choices depend on dynamic power management algorithm, and adding new resources is more energy efficient than scaling existing resources alone. The framework is verified through actual experiments on Qualcomm Snapdragon 800 based tablet MDP/T. Furthermore, usage of the framework at both design and runtime optimization is also presented.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The feasibility of domain specific compilation for spatially programmable architectures

Description

Integrated circuits must be energy efficient. This efficiency affects all aspects of chip design, from the battery life of embedded devices to thermal heating on high performance servers. As technology

Integrated circuits must be energy efficient. This efficiency affects all aspects of chip design, from the battery life of embedded devices to thermal heating on high performance servers. As technology scaling slows, future generations of transistors will lack the energy efficiency gains as it has had in previous generations. Therefore, other sources of energy efficiency will be much more important. Many computations have the potential to be executed for extreme energy efficiency but are not instigated because the platforms they run on are not optimized for efficient execution. ASICs improve energy efficiency by reducing flexibility and leveraging the properties of a specific computation. However, ASICs are fixed in function and therefore have incredible opportunity cost. FPGAs offer a reconfigurable solution but are 25x less energy efficient than ASIC implementation. Spatially programmable architectures (SPAs) are similar in design and structure to ASICs and FPGAs but are able bridge the ASIC-FPGA energy efficiency gap by trading flexibility for efficiency. However, SPAs are difficult to program because they do not share the same programming model as normal architectures that execute in time. This work addresses compiler challenges for coarse grained, locally interconnected SPA for domain efficiency (SPADE). A novel SPADE topology, called the wave pipeline, is introduced that is designed for the image signal processing domain that is both efficient and simple to compile to. A compiler for the wave pipeline is created that solves for maximum energy and area efficiency using low complexity, greedy methods. The wave pipeline topology and compiler allow for us to investigate and experiment with image signal processing applications to prove the feasibility of SPADE compilers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Data movement energy characterization of emerging smartphone workloads for mobile platforms

Description

A benchmark suite that is representative of the programs a processor typically executes is necessary to understand a processor's performance or energy consumption characteristics. The first contribution of this work

A benchmark suite that is representative of the programs a processor typically executes is necessary to understand a processor's performance or energy consumption characteristics. The first contribution of this work addresses this need for mobile platforms with MobileBench, a selection of representative smartphone applications. In smartphones, like any other portable computing systems, energy is a limited resource. Based on the energy characterization of a commercial widely-used smartphone, application cores are found to consume a significant part of the total energy consumption of the device. With this insight, the subsequent part of this thesis focuses on the portion of energy that is spent to move data from the memory system to the application core's internal registers. The primary motivation for this work comes from the relatively higher power consumption associated with a data movement instruction compared to that of an arithmetic instruction. The data movement energy cost is worsened esp. in a System on Chip (SoC) because the amount of data received and exchanged in a SoC based smartphone increases at an explosive rate. A detailed investigation is performed to quantify the impact of data movement

on the overall energy consumption of a smartphone device. To aid this study, microbenchmarks that generate desired data movement patterns between different levels of the memory hierarchy are designed. Energy costs of data movement are then computed by measuring the instantaneous power consumption of the device when the micro benchmarks are executed. This work makes an extensive use of hardware performance counters to validate the memory access behavior of microbenchmarks and to characterize the energy consumed in moving data. Finally, the calculated energy costs of data movement are used to characterize the portion of energy that MobileBench applications spend in moving data. The results of this study show that a significant 35% of the total device energy is spent in data movement alone. Energy is an increasingly important criteria in the context of designing architectures for future smartphones and this thesis offers insights into data movement energy consumption.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Register files for embedded low-power applications including microprocessors

Description

Register file (RF) memory is important in low power system on chip (SOC) due to its

inherent low voltage stability. Moreover, designs increasingly use compiled instead of custom memory blocks, which

Register file (RF) memory is important in low power system on chip (SOC) due to its

inherent low voltage stability. Moreover, designs increasingly use compiled instead of custom memory blocks, which frequently employ static, rather than pre-charged dynamic RFs. In this work, the various RFs designed for a microprocessor cache and register files are discussed. Comparison between static and dynamic RF power dissipation and timing characteristics is also presented. The relative timing and power advantages of the designs are shown to be dependent on the memory aspect ratio, i.e. array width and height.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Design techniques for ultra-low noise and low power low dropout (LDO) regulators

Description

Modern day deep sub-micron SOC architectures often demand very low supply noise levels. As supply voltage decreases with decreasing deep sub-micron gate length, noise on the power supply starts playing

Modern day deep sub-micron SOC architectures often demand very low supply noise levels. As supply voltage decreases with decreasing deep sub-micron gate length, noise on the power supply starts playing a dominant role in noise-sensitive analog blocks, especially high precision ADC, PLL, and RF SOC's. Most handheld and portable applications and highly sensitive medical instrumentation circuits tend to use low noise regulators as on-chip or on board power supply. Nonlinearities associated with LNA's, mixers and oscillators up-convert low frequency noise with the signal band. Specifically, synthesizer and TCXO phase noise, LNA and mixer noise figure, and adjacent channel power ratios of the PA are heavily influenced by the supply noise and ripple. This poses a stringent requirement on a very low noise power supply with high accuracy and fast transient response. Low Dropout (LDO) regulators are preferred over switching regulators for these applications due to their attractive low noise and low ripple features. LDO's shield sensitive blocks from high frequency fluctuations on the power supply while providing high accuracy, fast response supply regulation.

This research focuses on developing innovative techniques to reduce the noise of any generic wideband LDO, stable with or without load capacitor. The proposed techniques include Switched RC Filtering to reduce the Bandgap Reference noise, Current Mode Chopping to reduce the Error Amplifier noise & MOS-R based RC filter to reduce the noise due to bias current. The residual chopping ripple was reduced using a Switched Capacitor notch filter. Using these techniques, the integrated noise of a wideband LDO was brought down to 15µV in the integration band of 10Hz to 100kHz. These techniques can be integrated into any generic LDO without any significant area overhead.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Integrated inductors with micro-patterned magnetic thin films for RF and power applications

Description

With increasing demand for System on Chip (SoC) and System in Package (SiP) design in computer and communication technologies, integrated inductor which is an essential passive component has been widely

With increasing demand for System on Chip (SoC) and System in Package (SiP) design in computer and communication technologies, integrated inductor which is an essential passive component has been widely used in numerous integrated circuits (ICs) such as in voltage regulators and RF circuits. In this work, soft ferromagnetic core material, amorphous Co-Zr-Ta-B, was incorporated into on-chip and in-package inductors in order to scale down inductors and improve inductors performance in both inductance density and quality factor. With two layers of 500 nm Co-Zr-Ta-B films a 3.5X increase in inductance and a 3.9X increase in quality factor over inductors without magnetic films were measured at frequencies as high as 1 GHz. By laminating technology, up to 9.1X increase in inductance and more than 5X increase in quality factor (Q) were obtained from stripline inductors incorporated with 50 nm by 10 laminated films with a peak Q at 300 MHz. It was also demonstrated that this peak Q can be pushed towards high frequency as far as 1GHz by a combination of patterning magnetic films into fine bars and laminations. The role of magnetic vias in magnetic flux and eddy current control was investigated by both simulation and experiment using different patterning techniques and by altering the magnetic via width. Finger-shaped magnetic vias were designed and integrated into on-chip RF inductors improving the frequency of peak quality factor from 400 MHz to 800 MHz without sacrificing inductance enhancement. Eddy current and magnetic flux density in different areas of magnetic vias were analyzed by HFSS 3D EM simulation. With optimized magnetic vias, high frequency response of up to 2 GHz was achieved. Furthermore, the effect of applied magnetic field on on-chip inductors was investigated for high power applications. It was observed that as applied magnetic field along the hard axis (HA) increases, inductance maintains similar value initially at low fields, but decreases at larger fields until the magnetic films become saturated. The high frequency quality factor showed an opposite trend which is correlated to the reduction of ferromagnetic resonant absorption in the magnetic film. In addition, experiments showed that this field-dependent inductance change varied with different patterned magnetic film structures, including bars/slots and fingers structures. Magnetic properties of Co-Zr-Ta-B films on standard organic package substrates including ABF and polyimide were also characterized. Effects of substrate roughness and stress were analyzed and simulated which provide strategies for integrating Co-Zr-Ta-B into package inductors and improving inductors performance. Stripline and spiral inductors with Co-Zr-Ta-B films were fabricated on both ABF and polyimide substrates. Maximum 90% inductance increase in hundreds MHz frequency range were achieved in stripline inductors which are suitable for power delivery applications. Spiral inductors with Co-Zr-Ta-B films showed 18% inductance increase with quality factor of 4 at frequency up to 3 GHz.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Extraction of RF transceiver system parameters and impairments through detailed analytical modeling combined with a genetic algorithm approach

Description

ABSTRACT To meet stringent market demands, manufacturers must produce Radio Frequency (RF) transceivers that provide wireless communication between electronic components used in consumer products at extremely low cost. Semiconductor manufacturers

ABSTRACT To meet stringent market demands, manufacturers must produce Radio Frequency (RF) transceivers that provide wireless communication between electronic components used in consumer products at extremely low cost. Semiconductor manufacturers are in a steady race to increase integration levels through advanced system-on-chip (SoC) technology. The testing costs of these devices tend to increase with higher integration levels. As the integration levels increase and the devices get faster, the need for high-calibre low cost test equipment become highly dominant. However testing the overall system becomes harder and more expensive. Traditionally, the transceiver system is tested in two steps utilizing high-calibre RF instrumentation and mixed-signal testers, with separate measurement setups for transmitter and receiver paths. Impairments in the RF front-end, such as the I/Q gain and phase imbalance and nonlinearity, severely affect the performance of the device. The transceiver needs to be characterized in terms of these impairments in order to guarantee good performance and specification requirements. The motivation factor for this thesis is to come up with a low cost and computationally simple extraction technique of these impairments. In the proposed extraction technique, the mapping between transmitter input signals and receiver output signals are used to extract the impairment and nonlinearity parameters. This is done with the help of detailed mathematical modeling of the transceiver. While the overall behavior is nonlinear, both linear and nonlinear models to be used under different test setups are developed. A two step extraction technique has been proposed in this work. The extraction of system parameters is performed by using the mathematical model developed along with a genetic algorithm implemented in MATLAB. The technique yields good extraction results with reasonable error. It uses simple mathematical operation which makes the extraction fast and computationally simple when compared to other existing techniques such as traditional two step dedicated approach, Nonlinear Solver (NLS) approach, etc. It employs frequency domain analysis of low frequency input and output signals, over cumbersome time domain computations. Thus a test method, including detailed behavioral modeling of the transceiver, appropriate test signal design along with a simple algorithm for extraction is presented.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011